# plane

## Definitions

• Whetting a Plane-Bit
• WordNet 3.6
• adj plane having a surface without slope, tilt in which no part is higher or lower than another "a flat desk","acres of level farmland","a plane surface","skirts sewn with fine flat seams"
• v plane cut or remove with or as if with a plane "The machine shaved off fine layers from the piece of wood"
• v plane make even or smooth, with or as with a carpenter's plane "plane the top of the door"
• v plane travel on the surface of water
• n plane an aircraft that has a fixed wing and is powered by propellers or jets "the flight was delayed due to trouble with the airplane"
• n plane a carpenter's hand tool with an adjustable blade for smoothing or shaping wood "the cabinetmaker used a plane for the finish work"
• n plane a power tool for smoothing or shaping wood
• n plane (mathematics) an unbounded two-dimensional shape "we will refer to the plane of the graph as the X-Y plane","any line joining two points on a plane lies wholly on that plane"
• n plane a level of existence or development "he lived on a worldly plane"
• ***

Section of Jack Plane
Sighting Along the Sole of Jack-Plane
The Order of Planing a Board
Planing an Edge
Section of Block-Plane
Using the Block-Plane and Bench-Hook
Cutter of Scrub-Plane. Scratch-Plane and Scraper-Plane

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
• Interesting fact: More people are killed by donkeys annually than are killed in plane crashes
• Plane (Mech) A block or plate having a perfectly flat surface, used as a standard of flatness; a surface plate.
• Plane (Geom) A surface, real or imaginary, in which, if any two points are taken, the straight line which joins them lies wholly in that surface; or a surface, any section of which by a like surface is a straight line; a surface without curvature.
• Plane (Joinery) A tool for smoothing boards or other surfaces of wood, for forming moldings, etc. It consists of a smooth-soled stock, usually of wood, from the under side or face of which projects slightly the steel cutting edge of a chisel, called the iron, which inclines backward, with an apperture in front for the escape of shavings; as, the jack plane; the smoothing plane; the molding plane, etc.
• Plane (Astron) An ideal surface, conceived as coinciding with, or containing, some designated astronomical line, circle, or other curve; as, the plane of an orbit; the plane of the ecliptic, or of the equator.
• n Plane (Bot) Any tree of the genus Platanus.☞ The Oriental plane ( Platanus orientalis ) is a native of Asia. It rises with a straight, smooth, branching stem to a great height, with palmated leaves, and long pendulous peduncles, sustaining several heads of small close-sitting flowers. The seeds are downy, and collected into round, rough, hard balls. The Occidental plane ( Platanus occidentalis ), which grows to a great height, is a native of North America, where it is popularly called sycamore buttonwood, and buttonball, names also applied to the California species (Platanus racemosa).
• Plane Figuratively, to make plain or smooth. "What student came but that you planed her path."
• v. i Plane Of a boat, to lift more or less out of the water while in motion, after the manner of a hydroplane; to hydroplane.
• Plane To efface or remove. "He planed away the names . . . written on his tables."
• Plane To make smooth; to level; to pare off the inequalities of the surface of, as of a board or other piece of wood, by the use of a plane; as, to plane a plank.
• a Plane Without elevations or depressions; even; level; flat; lying in, or constituting, a plane; as, a plane surface.☞ In science, this word (instead of plain) is almost exclusively used to designate a flat or level surface.
• ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
• Interesting fact: In 1946, the New York Yankees became the first baseball team to travel by plane
• plane Having the character of a plane; contained within a plane: as, a plane mirror; a plane curve. In n-dimensional geometry, sometimes applied to a linear manifold of any number of dimensions, for which fiat is generally used.
• plane In botany, having a flat surface or surfaces.
• plane In entomology, flat and not deflexed; flat at the margins: as, plane elytra.
• n plane A geometrical surface such that if any two points in it are joined by a straight line, the line will lie wholly on the surface; a surface such that two of them which have any three points in common must coincide over their whole extent; hence, a real surface having (approximately) this form. It is thus the simplest of all geometrical surfaces. A plane may also be defined as a surface of the form which is the ideal limit toward which the surfaces of three rigid solids, A, B, C, approximate, if these are ground together in successive pairs, AB, BC, CA, AB, and so on indefinitely. In higher geometry a plane is considered as unlimited; but in elementary geometry a part of such a surface is also called a plane.
• n plane Specifically In biology: An ideal surface of extension in any axis of an organism: as, the vertical longitudinal plane of the body.
• n plane A surface approximately flat or level; a “horizon” : as, the plane of the teeth or of the diaphragm.
• n plane In coal-mining, any slope or incline on which coal is raised or lowered, but usually applied to self-acting inclines, or those on which the coal is lowered by gravity. [Pennsylvania anthracite region.] In England any main road, whether level or inclined, may be called a plane
• n plane In crystallography, one of the natural faces of a crystal.
• n plane Figuratively, a grade of existence or a stage of development: as, to live on a higher plane.
• plane To make plane or smooth; make clear.
• plane To make smooth, especially by the use of a plane: as, to plane wood.
• plane To rub out; erase.
• n plane A tool for paring, smoothing, truing, and finishing woodwork. The essential parts of a plane are a stock or frame of wood or metal bering a smooth, concave, or convex base or sole, and a throat in which is placed a steel cutter called the plane-iron or bit. Various devices are used to keep the bit in position in the stock, the most simple and common being a wedge of wood. Planes are made in a great variety of shapes and sizes, and range from 1 to 72 inches in length. Nearly all are distinguished by names having reference to the particular kind of work for which they are designed, as the edge-plane, molding-plane, and smoothing-plane. Planes are also used for truing soft metal surfaces. Plane-irons are inserted in their stocks at various pitches or angles, according to the duty they are to perform. Common pitch, or 45' from the horizontal line, is used in all bench-planes for soft woods. The pitch is increased with the hardness of the material to be worked. See pitch and plane-stock, and cut in next column.
• n plane A metallic gage or test for a true surface; a true plane or plane surface; a surface-plate.
• n plane An instrument, resembling a plasterers' trowel, used by brickmakers for striking off clay projecting above the top of the mold.
• n plane The plane-tree.
• n plane In geometry, a plane through the center of a sphere.
• n plane In linegeom., one of the planes of which two are determined by each straight of the congruence taken with each of the two straights consecutive to it by which it is intersected.
• n plane A wood-working plane having a stock resting on adjustable slides which take the place of the sole, and having adjustable fences on each side of the stock, so as to admit, by the use of various attachments, of the use of a great variety of bits. It can thus be used in molding, matching, beading, reeding, aud fiuting, as a hollow, chamfer-, fillister-, dado-, and slitting-plane, and as a plow. Also called universal plane.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
• Interesting fact: There are an estimated 2,500 collisions between birds and planes each year in the US
• n Plane plān (geom.) a surface on which, if any two points be taken, the straight line joining them will lie entirely on the surface:
• adj Plane having the character of a plane: pertaining to, lying in, or forming a plane
• v.t Plane to make plane or smooth
• v.t Plane to survey with a plane-table
• n Plane plān a carpenter's tool for producing a level or smooth surface
• v.t Plane to make a surface (as of wood) level by means of a plane
• n Plane plān (astron.) a surface thought of as bounded by the line round which a heavenly body moves: any flat or level surface: any incline on which coal is lowered by the effect of gravity: any grade of life or of development
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## Quotations

• Kabbalah
“The atom, being for all practical purposes the stable unit of the physical plane, is a constantly changing vortex of reactions.”
• Charlie Chaplin
“I remain just one thing, and one thing only -- and that is a clown. It places me on a far higher plane than any politician.”
• Alan Lakein
“In all planing you make a list and you set priorities.”

## Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
F., fr. L. platanus, Gr. , fr. broad; -- so called on account of its broad leaves and spreading form. See Place, and cf. Platane Plantain the tree
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
Fr.,—L. planus, plain.

## Usage

### In literature:

Study it as you will you can find little resemblance in those rectangular rigid planes to the wings of a bird.
"Aircraft and Submarines" by Willis J. Abbot
My attention was on managing the plane.
"Astounding Stories, March, 1931" by Various
The nest referred to is on a plane entirely outside of Nature and her processes.
"Ways of Nature" by John Burroughs
He sat there nearly all that night; and near dawn, an official plane carried him in a flight over the city.
"Astounding Stories, April, 1931" by Various
The green plane dipped, dived under him, and Larkin noticed another plane flash past him, bent on other game.
"Aces Up" by Covington Clarke
The planes of it cross the plane of the canvas, recede from it, cross behind, and return.
"The Painter in Oil" by Daniel Burleigh Parkhurst
The nose of the plane went up in obedience to his own desire.
"The People of the Crater" by Andrew North
The sound seemed to indicate that the planes were flying low.
""And they thought we wouldn't fight"" by Floyd Gibbons
As we have already noted, the gifts of Froebel are thus far solids, divided solids, planes and divided planes.
"Froebel's Gifts" by Kate Douglas Wiggin
The man from the plane had not gone more than fifty yards when he halted sharply.
"Astounding Stories, July, 1931" by Various
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### In poetry:

The highway, like a beach,
Loud, pale against the sky,
The bombing planes hold speech.
"By The Road To The Air Base" by Yvor Winters
Another morning comes: I see,
Dwindling below me on the plane,
The roofs of one more audience
I shall not see again.
"On the Circuit" by W H Auden
Oh, there were fifteen men in green,
Each with a tommy-gun,
Who leapt into my plane at dawn;
We rose to meet the sun.
"Men In Green" by David Campbell
Upon the lofty spirit-plane,
Where all lies open to their sight,
The Masters know that not in vain
They left the Hills of Light.
"Reincarnation" by John Lawson Stoddard
Life softly clanging cymbals were
Garments of beauty wind-astir;
It was the day of all the dead —
"Toussaints (ToJ.W.H.)" by Ivor Gurney
William Leachman, I can see you jest as plane as I could then;
And your hand is on my shoulder, and you rouse me up again,
And I see the tears a-drippin' from your own eyes, as you say:
"Be rickonciled and bear it--we but linger fer a day!"
"To My Old Friend, William Leachman" by James Whitcomb Riley

### In news:

Where do Air Force planes go when they die.
Republican presidential candidate, former Massachusetts Gov Mitt Romney boards his campaign charter plane in Jacksonville, Fla.
They can rappel down skyscrapers, rescue plane-crash survivors from an icy river, and go toe-to-toe with terrorists.
3, 1959, the man who changed the face of popular music tragically died in a plane crash at age 22.
What should you do if you're on a plane that has been threatened with a bomb.
Why Can't I Use My Cell Phone on a Plane.
Area man wants planes to buzz off .
Robotics engineers at MIT were able to program this plane to fly by itself in a parking garage, at speeds of up to 22mph, for almost 3 miles while it came within centimeters of obstacles.
AMARILLO, Texas — A federal judge in Texas says a JetBlue Airways pilot who disrupted a flight by running through the plane and yelling about terrorists can go free.
Military aircraft have intercepted two small planes in restricted airspace around Camp David , where world leaders are gathering for an economic summit.
Matt Bickford is a Connecticut based woodworker who produces a remarkable line of wooden rabbet and molding planes.
More passengers and fuller planes are giving airlines the opportunity to raise ticket prices.
"A lot of times with curveballs , more than any other pitch, it will go above the fastball plane," House said.
Turkey grounds Armenian plane in growing de facto air blockade of Syria.
Hobbits keep plane passengers safe.
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### In science:

The answer appears to lie in the complex plane and the types of singularities the equations can have when analytically continued in the complex time plane.
Is Nature Generic?
Say one of the images of ¯θs is at ¯θ on the lens plane, and that the image-plane region ¯θ + ∆θ corresponds to the source-plane region ¯θs + ∆θs .
Beware the Non-uniqueness of Einstein Rings
Next, extending integral Eq. (7) into the plane of complex ξ , note that the for f (ξ ) given by Eq. (15) integrand has l simple poles in the upper half-plane.
Tails of probability density for sums of random independent variables
Alexandroff: every embedded surface in RN with constant mean curvature must be a sphere) of moving planes to a critical position and then showing that the solution is symmetric about the limiting plane.
Two symmetry problems in potential theory
Of course, the appearence of this singularity, concentrated in the plane Z=0, reﬂects the fact that this real gravitational ﬁeld has like source a system of masses distributed on the respective plane.
Can the notion of a homogeneous gravitational field be transferred from classical mechanics to the Relativistic Theory of Gravity ?
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