placebo

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n placebo (Roman Catholic Church) vespers of the office for the dead
    • n placebo an innocuous or inert medication; given as a pacifier or to the control group in experiments on the efficacy of a drug
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • Placebo (Med) a dose of a compound having no pharmacological activity given to a subject in a medical experiment as part of a control experiment in a test of the effectiveness of another, active pharmacological agent.
    • Placebo (Med) A prescription with no pharmacological activity given to a patient to humor or satisfy the desire for medical treatment.
    • Placebo (R. C. Ch) The first antiphon of the vespers for the dead.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n placebo In the Roman Catholic Church, the vespers of the office for the dead. It was so called from the initial words of the opening antiphon, Placebo Domino in regione vivorum (I shall be acceptable unto the Lord in the land of the living), taken from Psalm cxiv. 9 of the Vulgate (cxvi. 9 of the authorized version).
    • n placebo A medicine adapted rather to pacify than to benefit a patient.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Placebo plā-sē′bo in the R.C. service of vespers for the dead the name of the first antiphon, which begins with the word: a medicine given to humour or gratify a patient rather than to exercise any curative effect.
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Quotations

  • John L. Mcclenahan
    John L. Mcclenahan
    “It requires a great deal of faith for a man to be cured by his own placebos.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L., I shall please, fut. of placere, to please
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
L., 'I will please'—placēre, to please.

Usage

In literature:

We all know that placebos work admirably in numerous cases.
"A Practical Guide to Self-Hypnosis" by Melvin Powers
I administered potent drugs in person and left nothing to be taken according to direction except placebos.
"Our Southern Highlanders" by Horace Kephart
With him Placebo justifies his assentation on the ground that lords are better informed than their inferiors.
"The Works of Alexander Pope, Volume 1" by Alexander Pope
My own opinion is, it's what real physicians call the 'placebo effect.
"Life Blood" by Thomas Hoover
There was no double-blind placebo.
"Syndrome" by Thomas Hoover
These numerous bottles may contain placebos.
"Quacks and Grafters" by Unknown
Sir Patricius Placebo now became forth-with family physician to the Duke.
"The Eve of All-Hallows, v. 1 of 3" by Matthew Weld Hartstonge
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In news:

Quackery , Placebos, and Other Thoughts: An Integrative Oncologist's Perspective.
Half of Doctors Routinely Prescribe Placebos.
All had tried other pain medications and were given either botox injections or a placebo.
Placebo, according to new data from a late-stage study presented on Saturday.
Compression vs Placebo Tights for Recovery.
Placebo effect may depend on your genes.
People Who Respond to Placebos Are Good People.
Great Brain Medicine, or Just an Expensive Placebo.
Placebo and appeared to be safe, according to data from a late stage clinical trial presented on Tuesday.
That's compared to patients who were given a placebo.
John Horgan ("Placebo Nation," Op-Ed, March 21) forgot to include an important fact from the Department of Health and Human Services study he discusses.
Placebos Work Better in Children.
It's a strange finding nestled inside a weird phenomenon: children are 50 percent more likely than adults to respond favorably to placebos.
Placebo effect is strongest for the kind, hopeful, straightforward.
Pain drug Lyrica better than placebo.
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In science:

For example, the trial used as an illustration by Skene and Wakefield (1990) showed that the variation of placebo response rates was of the same magnitute as the variation of the treatment effect.
Multi-center clinical trials: Randomization and ancillary statistics
We assume the success rate for the treatment group is p1 = 0.917 and that for the placebo group is p2 = 0.745 (as reported in the original paper).
Sequential monitoring of response-adaptive randomized clinical trials
One of the hypotheses of interest is whether or not the distribution for Dose 1 is stochastically larger than that for the placebo.
The Interval Property in Multiple Testing of Pairwise Differences
H1 : θT − θP > ∆ · (θR − θP ), where θk ∈ Θ ⊆ R, k = T , R, P , is the parameter of interest, representing the efficacy of a treatment, and ∆ ∈ [0, ∞) a fixed constant expressing the amount of the active control effect relative to placebo, which should be retained.
The assessment and planning of non-inferiority trials for retention of effect hypotheses - towards a general approach
H1 : θT > ∆ · θR + (1 − ∆) · θP illustrates that in this case the test treatment effect is greater than a convex combination of the reference and the placebo effect if 0 ≤ ∆ ≤ 1.
The assessment and planning of non-inferiority trials for retention of effect hypotheses - towards a general approach
This includes two extremal cases: For ∆ = 1 we obtain superiority of the test treatment to the reference one (at least ∆ = 100% of the reference effect is retained) and for ∆ = 0 superiority of the test treatment to placebo.
The assessment and planning of non-inferiority trials for retention of effect hypotheses - towards a general approach
Establishing equivalence by showing that a specified percentage of the effect of the active control over placebo is maintained.
The assessment and planning of non-inferiority trials for retention of effect hypotheses - towards a general approach
Challenges and regulatory experiences with non-inferiority trial design without placebo arm.
The assessment and planning of non-inferiority trials for retention of effect hypotheses - towards a general approach
Hypothesis testing in the “gold standard” design for proving the efficacy of an experimental treatment relative to placebo and a reference. J.
The assessment and planning of non-inferiority trials for retention of effect hypotheses - towards a general approach
Assessing non-inferiority of a new treatment in a three-arm clinical trial including placebo.
The assessment and planning of non-inferiority trials for retention of effect hypotheses - towards a general approach
Yuen (1990). A randomized doubleblind placebo-controlled add-on trial of lamotrigine in patients with severe epilepsy.
The assessment and planning of non-inferiority trials for retention of effect hypotheses - towards a general approach
Denne (2006). A two-stage sample size recalculation procedure for placebo- and activecontrolled non-inferiority trials.
The assessment and planning of non-inferiority trials for retention of effect hypotheses - towards a general approach
Tests of noninferiority via rate difference for three-arm clinical trials with placebo.
The assessment and planning of non-inferiority trials for retention of effect hypotheses - towards a general approach
Finally, let Y0 and Y1 denote counterfactual outcomes had the person received a placebo or the new medicine respectively.
Adaptive Test of Conditional Moment Inequalities
Since the consumption of a cookie (ω(z , e, i))e∈E = (1/(2d))e∈E does not change the dynamics of the simple symmetric RW, which is our underlying process, such a cookie will be called a placebo cookie.
Excited random walks: results, methods, open problems
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