organ

Definitions

  • Monsieur Lacombe and the organ
    Monsieur Lacombe and the organ
  • WordNet 3.6
    • n organ (music) an electronic simulation of a pipe organ
    • n organ a free-reed instrument in which air is forced through the reeds by bellows
    • n organ wind instrument whose sound is produced by means of pipes arranged in sets supplied with air from a bellows and controlled from a large complex musical keyboard
    • n organ a fully differentiated structural and functional unit in an animal that is specialized for some particular function
    • n organ a periodical that is published by a special interest group "the organ of the communist party"
    • n organ a government agency or instrument devoted to the performance of some specific function "The Census Bureau is an organ of the Commerce Department"
    • ***

Additional illustrations & photos:

The auditory organ of a locust The auditory organ of a locust
The Organs of Digestion The Organs of Digestion
The Organs of Circulation The Organs of Circulation
Organs of the Chest Organs of the Chest
THE ITALIAN ORGAN-GRINDER THE ITALIAN ORGAN-GRINDER

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: True spiders always have organs for spinning silk known as spinnerets
    • Organ A component part performing an essential office in the working of any complex machine; as, the cylinder, valves, crank, etc., are organs of the steam engine.
    • Organ A medium of communication between one person or body and another; as, the secretary of state is the organ of communication between the government and a foreign power; a newspaper is the organ of its editor, or of a party, sect, etc. A newsletter distributed within an organization is often called its house organ.
    • Organ (Biol) A natural part or structure in an animal or a plant, capable of performing some special action (termed its function), which is essential to the life or well-being of the whole; as, the heart, lungs, etc., are organs of animals; the root, stem, foliage, etc., are organs of plants.
    • Organ (Mus) A wind instrument containing numerous pipes of various dimensions and kinds, which are filled with wind from a bellows, and played upon by means of keys similar to those of a piano, and sometimes by foot keys or pedals; -- formerly used in the plural, each pipe being considered an organ. "The deep, majestic, solemn organs blow."
    • Organ An instrument or medium by which some important action is performed, or an important end accomplished; as, legislatures, courts, armies, taxgatherers, etc., are organs of government.
    • v. t Organ To supply with an organ or organs; to fit with organs; to organize. "Thou art elemented and organed for other apprehensions."
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: BVD stands for the organizers of the company: Bradley, Voorhies, and Day.
    • n organ An instrument or means; that which performs some office, duty, or function; that by which some action is performed or end accomplished.
    • n organ A medium, instrument, or means of communication between one person or body of persons and another; a medium of conveying certain opinions: as, a secretary of state is the organ of communication between the government and a foreign power; an official gazette is the organ of a government; hence, specifically, a newspaper which serves as the mouthpiece of a particular party, faction, cause, denomination, or person: as, a Republican organ; a party organ.
    • n organ In biology, one of the parts or members of an organized body, as an animal or a plant, which has some specific function, by means of which some vital activity is manifested or some vital process is carried on: as, the organs of digestion, circulation, respiration, reproduction, locomotion; the organ of vision or of hearing; the vocal organs.
    • n organ The vocal organs collectively; the voice: now rare except in a somewhat technical or cant application with reference to the musical use of the voice.
    • n organ In phrenology, any part of the brain supposed to have a particular office or function in determining the character of the individual, and to be indicated by one of the areas of cerebral surface recognized by phrenologists: as, the organ of acquisitiveness, of alimentiveness, of inhabitiveness, etc.
    • n organ The largest, the most complicated, and the noblest of musical instruments, consisting of one or many sets of pipes sounded by means of compressed air, the whole instrument being under the control of a single player; a pipe-organ, as distinguished from a reed-organ. Historically, the principle of sounding a pipe pneumatically has been known from the earliest times. The combination of pipes or whistles into graduated series, so as to produce the tones of some sort of scale, appears in the primitive Pan's-pipe and in the Chinese cheng, both of which are blown by the breath, the latter being perhaps the actual prototype of the modern organ. Instruments of this general class seem to have been used in Europe from the first Christian centuries, having some apparatus for furnishing compressed air and a set of pipes the sounding of which was variously controlled. Soon after the tenth century great improvements were made, affecting every part of the mechanism. The process of mechanical development has been continuous ever since, and is still going on. The original impetus to this steady progress is due to the fact that the pipe-organ has been recognized ever since the fourth or fifth century as preëminently the church musical instrument. Until the sixteenth century no other instrument commanded the careful study of educated musicians. Its application to purely concert uses is comparatively recent. The modern pipe-organ consists essentially of three mechanical systems: the wind-supply, the compressed air used being technically called wind; the pipework, including the entire sound-producing apparatus; and the action, the mechanism by which the player controls the whole. The wind-supply includes two or more feeders, oblique bellows which are operated either by hand or by a water, gas, steam, or electric motor or engine; a storage-bellows, horizontal bellows into which the feeders open, and in which the air is kept at a uniform pressure by means of weights; wind-trunks, distributing the compressed air to the several parts of the instrument; and wind-chests, boxes directly under the pipes, in which are the valves for admitting the air to particular pipes or sets of pipes. Occasionally certain solo pipes are supplied with air from a special storage-bellows in which the tension is made greater by extra weights; such pipes are said to be on extra or heavy wind. The pipework includes a great variety of different kinds of pipes, made either of metal or of wood, arranged in sets called stops or registers, at least one pipe being usually provided in each set for each digital of the keyboard. In general, all pipes are either flue-pipes, which are either open at the upper end or plugged, or reed-pipes, the former producing tones through the impact of a stream of air upon the sharp edge or lip of a mouth in the side of the pipe, and the latter producing tones by the vibration of a tongue or reed placed over or in an orifice through which the air passes. (See pipe.) The pipes in a given set or stop are alike, except in size and pitch. The four principal qualities of tone produced are the true organ-tone, given by open metal flue-pipes of broad scale; the flute-tone, given by stopped wooden flue-pipes; the string-tone, given by open metal flue pipes of narrow scale; and the reed-tone, given by reed-pipes of various shape and material. A stop whose tones correspond exactly with the normal pitch of the digitals with which the several pipes are connected is called an eight-feet stop; one whose tones are uniformly an octave lower is called a sixteen-feet stop; while those whose tones are uniformly one or two octaves higher are called four-feet and two-feet stops respectively. Stops whose tones are different from the normal pitch of the digitals used, or from their upper or lower octaves, are called mutation-stops, in distinction from the above foundation-stops. Stops that have more than one pipe to the digital are called mixture-stops or mixtures. It is customary to group together several stops of different construction, tone-quality, and pitch upon a single wind-chest, and such a group of stops constitutes a partial organ. Usually from two to five such groups of stops or partial organs are introduced, such as the great organ, the chief and most sonorous of all; the swell-organ, so called because shut up in a tight box one side of which consists of shutters which may be opened or shut so as to let out or muffle the sound; the choir-organ, specially intended for accompanying either voices or other stops of the organ itself; the solo-organ, providing stops of very conspicuous power and individuality; and the pedal organ, including deep-toned stops played from a keyboard for the feet, and supplying the fundamental tones of the harmony. The number, order, power, and quality of the stops placed in these several partial organs vary widely. Each is complete in itself, having its own wind-chest and keyboard, so that it can be used independently of the others; but by means of couplers any pair may be played conjointly from a single keyboard. (See coupler.) The action includes one keyboard for each partial organ, a stop-knob for each stop, a knob or piston for each coupler, a swell-pedal, combination pedals, etc. Keyboards for the hands are called manuals, and those for the feet pedals, each being made up of the usual white and black digitals or keys. The manuals usually have a compass of nearly or about five octaves, beginning on the second C below middle C, while the pedals have about half this compass, beginning an octave lower. The manuals are placed above each other in a desk-like case; when there are two, the lower belongs to the great organ, and the upper to the swell-organ; when there are three, the lowest belongs to the choir-organ. The stop knobs, bearing the names of the stops, are placed on both sides of the manuals, and are grouped according to the partial organs to which they belong. When a stop is to be used, its knob is pulled forward, or “drawn.” Frequently combination pedals or pistons are provided, by which several knobs may be drawn or retired at once. Sometimes, also, a crescendo pedal is introduced, by which the entire resources of the instrument may be gradually called into action. The keyboards may be combined in various ways by means of couplers. The digitals of the keyboards are connected with the valves in the wind-chests by a complicated series of stickers, squares, rollers, trackers, etc., which are almost entirely made of wood. In large organs the friction of the key-action is so great that a pneumatic or electric action is employed, in which the digitals merely make connections so that compressed air or electricity may do the work. The stop-knobs are connected with the wind-chests by similar systems of levers, rods, squares, etc., which are also often pneumatically or electrically manipulated. When a digital on one of the keyboards is depressed, a valve is opened from the wind-chest belonging to that keyboard, admitting the compressed air to a groove or channel over which stand all the pipes belonging to the digital: only those pipes, however, are sounded that belong to the stops whose stop-knobs happen to be drawn. The opening and closing of the shutters of the swell-box is manipulated through a special swell-pedal. Various other mechanical accessories are often added, such as the tremulant, a device by which an oscillating tension is given to the air in one of the wind-trunks, the pedal-check, the bellows-signal, etc. The history of organ music until the sixteenth century was coincident with that of vocal music, for which it merely afforded a basis; but since that time it has had a remarkable independent development, particularly in the works of J. S. Bach. The organ has been much used in conjunction with choral music to enhance broad harmonic effects; and lately it has been also applied to the elaborate imitation of orchestral music. It remains the distinctively church instrument, although it is often found in concert-halls and in opera-houses. Formerly the instrument was often spoken of as a pair of organs, or simply organs.
    • n organ One of the independent groups of stops of which a pipe-organ is made up; a partial organ, such as the great organ, the swell-organ, etc., described above.
    • n organ A harmonium or reed-organ.
    • n organ Some other musical instrument, as a pipe or harp.
    • n organ A pipe-organ the action of which is manipulated with the help of electricity.
    • n organ Same as choir-organ.
    • organ To furnish with organs; organize.
    • n organ Same as origan.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Some frogs use sugars as an antifreeze for vital organs
    • n Organ or′gan an instrument or means by which anything is done: a part of a body fitted for carrying on a natural or vital operation: a means of communication, or of conveying information or opinions from one to another of two parties, as an ambassador, a newspaper, &c.: a musical wind instrument consisting of a collection of pipes made to sound by means of compressed air from bellows, and played upon by means of keys: a system of pipes in such an organ, having an individual keyboard, a partial organ: a musical instrument having some mechanism resembling the pipe-organ, as the barrel-organ, &c
    • ***

Quotations

  • Napoleon Bonaparte
    Napoleon%20Bonaparte
    “Character is victory organized.”
  • Ambrose Bierce
    Ambrose%20Bierce
    “A man is known by the company he organizes.”
  • Henry Brooks Adams
    Henry%20Brooks%20Adams
    “Politics, whatever its professions, has always been the systematic organization of hatreds.”
  • John Jay Chapman
    John%20Jay%20Chapman
    “Politics is organized hatred, that is unity.”
  • George Bernard Shaw
    George%20Bernard%20Shaw
    “Property is organized robbery.”
  • Herbert Spencer
    Herbert%20Spencer
    “Science is organized knowledge.”

Idioms

Speak to the organ grinder not the monkey - Talk to the boss not the subordinate
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L. organum, Gr. ; akin to work, and E. work,: cf. F. organe,. See Work, and cf. Orgue Orgy
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
Fr. organe—L. organum—Gr. organon.

Usage

In literature:

It was intended to be in the nature of an organ for the first real German kaffee-klatsch.
"All About Coffee" by William H. Ukers
The owners of industry organized on the one side: the workers organized on the other.
"The Next Step" by Scott Nearing
In the night of June 25, 1917, the French made a brilliant attack northwest of Hurtebise on a strongly organized German position.
"The Story of the Great War, Volume VI (of VIII)" by Various
Billings was a tanner by trade, but a great musical enthusiast and organizer.
"Annals of Music in America" by Henry Charles Lahee
Organizations arise to meet recognized human needs, but no one organization can meet all the needs of the whole community.
"The Farmer and His Community" by Dwight Sanderson
And this economic organization, mark, is the all-essential organization.
"Essays: Scientific, Political, & Speculative, Vol. I" by Herbert Spencer
ORGANIZATION: The suffragists were widely scattered over this immense Territory and there had been little opportunity for organized work.
"The History of Woman Suffrage, Volume IV" by Various
Miss Patterson told of the thorough organization work being done under fourteen organizers, who had covered twelve States.
"The History of Woman Suffrage, Volume V"
A complete plan of organizing with Era Club members as ward and precinct leaders taught them political organization.
"The History of Woman Suffrage, Volume VI" by Various
The brain, being an organized part, is subject, so far as regards exercise, to the same laws as the other organs of the body.
"A Treatise on Anatomy, Physiology, and Hygiene (Revised Edition)" by Calvin Cutter
Organized work requires organized recreation.
"The Evolution of the Country Community" by Warren H. Wilson
In the first place, all trades are organized, and nearly all organizations are co-operating sympathetically with one another.
"History of Human Society" by Frank W. Blackmar
He was as ultra a man as any; and all he could do was to organize and arm the troops authorized by Congress.
"A Rebel War Clerk's Diary at the Confederate States Capital" by John Beauchamp Jones
Organ Recital 7 to 8.
"The Life and Work of Susan B. Anthony (Volume 2 of 2)" by Ida Husted Harper
This mode of conducting the industry, however, involves organization.
"Essentials of Economic Theory" by John Bates Clark
This library has been well organized; but the working of it will depend upon you.
"The Library and Society" by Various
You represent the economic organization of the working class and this organization has its own clearly defined functions.
"Labor and Freedom" by Eugene V. Debs
The French maintained all their gains and organized captured positions.
"The Story of the Great War, Volume VII (of VIII)" by Various
The first historical instance of a military organization resembling those of modern times is that of the Persian empire.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 2, Slice 6" by Various
The music had increased in volume and Penny was more sure than ever that it came from a hidden pipe organ.
"Penny Nichols and the Mystery of the Lost Key" by Joan Clark
***

In poetry:

"The tapers burn, the altar glows,
Robed are the priests in costly pride,
The organ sounds! Prepare!"—Again
"One moment stay!" the victim cried.
"Julia, or the Convent of St. Claire" by Amelia Opie
I passed through the gates of the city,
The streets were strange and still,
Through the doors of the open churches
The organs were moaning shrill.
"Life and Nature" by Archibald Lampman
The darkly shining salt sea drops
Streamed as the waves clashed on the shore;
The beach, with all its organ stops
Pealing again, prolonged the roar.
"In Romney Marsh" by John Davidson
"Rejoice," said the Wind; "I am free and strong,
And will wake in thy heart an ancient song;
Hear the roaring woods, my organ noise!"
But man would not rejoice.
"Rejoice" by George MacDonald
``With them I kneel, but neither praise nor pray,
While tapers burn, hymns float, and organ rolls,
Because I know that there too can I sway
And stupefy their souls.
"Sacred And Profane Love" by Alfred Austin
Slowly the chanted yearning dies:
Then spoken supplications rise,
Upfloating to the sky;
The organ peals anew, again
Is silent, and there linger then
Only my soul and I.
"Poet’s Corner" by Alfred Austin

In news:

When choosing a coupon organization system, consider how much time you want to dedicate to clipping and organizing.
Organic standards for eggs are weak, allowing some farmers to cram "organic" hens into filthy barns.
In addition, advertising tools this kind of as cost-free organization cards via VistaPrint are obtainable to promote the organization and its corresponding website.
IRS Exempt Organizations has sent out a questionnaire to a sample of randomly selected tax- exempt organizations asking them to evaluate one of three different methods the IRS can use to provide tax information.
They don't label the meat as organic because they bring in feed that comes off farms that are not organic-certified.
The former owner of a California fertilizer company will serve a year in federal prison for selling organic fertilizer that was not organic.
This thin client communicates with the Nomad server installed on an organization's own network and filters Internet access based on the organization's Acceptable Use Policy.
COLUMBUS — Organic products certified in the United States or in Europe may be sold as organic in either region starting June 1.
Campus departments and organizations are hoping to help reduce stress by extending building hours and organizing events to help keep students motivated.
Organic milk is going mainstream, and conventional retailers worry that Wal-Mart'splans to expand organic sections could make limited supplies even tighter.
"Corkins was given a license to shoot an unarmed man by organizations like the Southern Poverty Law Center that have been reckless in labeling organizations as hate groups because they disagree with them on public policy," Perkins said.
Mitchell is former first vice president of Black Women Organized for Political Action (BWOPA), a statewide Black women's political organization.
EcoSMART ORGANIC HOME PEST CONTROL kills bugs and insects safely and effectively using a blend of organic plant oils.
Organic bedding has the Global Organic Textile Standard (GOTS).
The founder and chief organic officer of Colorado-based Lily Organics believes your skincare should be similarly traceable—from ingredients to manufacturing.
***

In science:

The rest of the paper is organized as follows.
Conditional Plausibility Measures and Bayesian Networks
The discussion by Krueger and Kissel (1989) points out particularly to the chemical composition of the organics predicted by Greenberg (e.g.
Cosmic Dust in the 21st Century
Nicolis, G., Prigogine, I. (1977), Self-organization in nonequilibrium systems, Wiley.
Cosmic Dust in the 21st Century
The remainder of this paper is organized as follows.
Fluctuations of the free energy in the REM and the p-spin SK models
Thus the perturbative expansion will be organized as a sum over topologies of a two-dimensional surface.
Large N field theories from superstrings
The paper is organized as follows: Results and definitions are given in this section.
Dual 2-complexes in 4-manifolds
The rest of the paper is organized as follows.
A Simple Proof that Rational Curves on K3 are Nodal
This paper is organized so that it starts by introducing in Section II the exact ground state calculation technique.
Susceptibility and Percolation in 2D Random Field Ising Magnets
Under the influence of perturbations the system point out self-organized critical behavior.
Self-Organized Critical Random Boolean Networks
These systems show characteristics related to self-organized criticality.
Self-Organized Critical Random Boolean Networks
In section III statistical results of the evolution of the self-organized RBN are presented.
Self-Organized Critical Random Boolean Networks
Pashler organizes his discussion by separating perceptual processing from postperceptual processing.
Quantum theory and the role of mind in nature
The remainder of this paper is organized as follows.
Metal-Boron Nanotubes
We organize the spins on a lattice and the index i refers to the lattice site.
An Introduction to Monte Carlo Simulation of Statistical physics Problem
It is clear that the invasion percolation is a self organized critical phenomenon.
An Introduction to Monte Carlo Simulation of Statistical physics Problem
***