oil

Definitions

  • A Study in Oils
    A Study in Oils
  • WordNet 3.6
    • v oil administer an oil or ointment to; often in a religious ceremony of blessing
    • v oil cover with oil, as if by rubbing "oil the wooden surface"
    • n oil oil paint containing pigment that is used by an artist
    • n oil any of a group of liquid edible fats that are obtained from plants
    • n oil a slippery or viscous liquid or liquefiable substance not miscible with water
    • n oil a dark oil consisting mainly of hydrocarbons
    • ***

Additional illustrations & photos:

Oil Colors Oil Colors
The Oil-Cup The Oil-Cup
SPECIMEN TINTS OF ARTISTS' OIL COLOURS NO. 1 SPECIMEN TINTS OF ARTISTS' OIL COLOURS NO. 1
SPECIMEN TINTS OF ARTISTS' OIL COLOURS NO. 2 SPECIMEN TINTS OF ARTISTS' OIL COLOURS NO. 2
OIL THE GEARING OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM OIL THE GEARING OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM
WILL REMOVE TAR, PITCH, PAINT, OIL OR VARNISH FROM YOUR CLOTHING WILL REMOVE TAR, PITCH, PAINT, OIL OR VARNISH FROM YOUR CLOTHING
Pouring cold water on the troubled oil Pouring cold water on the troubled oil
Tempering in oil bath Tempering in oil bath

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Whale oil was used in some car transmissions until 1973
    • n Oil oil Any one of a great variety of unctuous combustible substances, more viscous than and not miscible with water; as, olive oil, whale oil, rock oil, etc. They are of animal, vegetable, or mineral origin and of varied composition, and they are variously used for food, for solvents, for anointing, lubrication, illumination, etc. By extension, any substance of an oily consistency; as, oil of vitriol.☞ The mineral oils are varieties of petroleum. See Petroleum. The vegetable oils are of two classes, essential oilssee under Essential), and natural oils which in general resemble the animal oils and fats. Most of the natural oils and the animal oils and fats consist of ethereal salts of glycerin, with a large number of organic acids, principally stearic, oleic, and palmitic, forming respectively stearin, olein, and palmitin. Stearin and palmitin prevail in the solid oils and fats, and olein in the liquid oils. Mutton tallow, beef tallow, and lard are rich in stearin, human fat and palm oil in palmitin, and sperm and cod-liver oils in olein. In making soaps, the acids leave the glycerin and unite with the soda or potash.
    • v. t Oil To smear or rub over with oil; to lubricate with oil; to anoint with oil.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: Reptiles do not perspire, and do not have any oil glands
    • n oil The general name for a class of bodies which have all or most of the following properties in common: they are neutral bodies having a more or less unctuous feel and viscous consistence, are liquid at ordinary temperatures, are lighter than water, and are insoluble in it, but dissolve in alcohol and more readily in ether, and take fire when heated in air, burning with a luminous smoky flame. The oils are divided into three classes, which have very different chemical composition and properties: the fatty or fixed oils, essential or volatile oils, and the mineral oils. The fatty or fixed oils leave a permanent greasy stain on paper, are distinctly unctuous to the feel, and differ from fats chiefly in being liquid at ordinary temperatures. (See fat.) Both are triglycerides of the fatty acids. The fatty oils are of both animal and vegetable origin, and are subdivided into the drying and the non-drying oils. The former class includes all oils which thicken when exposed to the air through the absorption of oxygen. and are converted thereby into varnish, as, for example, linseed-, nut-, poppy-, and hempseed- oils. The non-drying oils when exposed to the air also undergo a change induced by fermentation, resulting in the formation of acrid, disagreeably smelling, acid substances. The fixed vegetable oils are generally prepared by subjecting the seeds of the plant to pressure; the animal oils are, for the most part, the fluid parts of the fat of animals. Fixed oils are used as lubricants, as sources of artificial light, for the manufacture of soaps, and for many other purposes in the arts. Essential or volatile oils are generally obtained by distilling the vegetables which afford them with water; they are acrid, caustic, aromatic, and limpid, and are mostly soluble in alcohol, forming essences. They boil at a temperature considerably above that of boiling water, some of them undergoing partial decomposition. Chemically considered, some are pure hydrocarbons (terpines), but most of them are mixtures of terpines with certain camphors and resins. They absorb oxygen quite rapidly, producing ozone, which gives to them bleaching properties. They are used chiefly in medicine and perfumery; and a few of them are extensively employed in the arts as vehicles for colors, and in the manufacture of varnishes, especially oil of turpentine. Mineral oils, petroleum and its derivatives, are mixtures of hydrocarbons, some being exclusively paraffins, others containing varying quantities of hydrocarbons of the ole-fine and benzene series. They are only of mineral origin, while the fatty and essential oils are solely of animal and vegetable origin. The mineral oils are now most largely used as sources of artificial light. Oil has been used for religious and ceremonial purposes under Judaism and Christianity as well as in other religions. Under the Mosaic law it was mingled with or poured upon the flour or meal of the offerings at the consecration of priests and Levites, those at the daily sacrifices, etc., and “meat-offerings” (meal-offerings) in general. Kings, priests, and prophets were anointed with oil (whence the title Messiah or Christ). The oil for the sanctuary and for unction of priests was mixed with myrrh, cinnamon, calamus, and cassia (Ex. xxx. 22–33). In the Christian church anointing inanimate objects with oil signifies hallowing or dedicating them to God, and unction of persons symbolizes the bestowal of the gifts or graces of the Holy Ghost and personal consecration to God's service. See the phrase holy oil, below. For the use of oil in storms at sea. see oil-distributer.
    • n oil Specifically Oil as used for burning in a lamp, to afford light: as, to burn the midnight oil (alluding to nocturnal study).
    • n oil An oil of indifferent scent from the Lebanon cedar.
    • n oil Oil of chrism, oil mixed with balsam, or with wine and aromatics, used at baptism, confirmation, coronation of sovereigns, etc.: also called chrism.
    • n oil Oil of the sick, oil used at the unction of the sick. See euchelaion and unction.
    • n oil Especially, in the Greek Church, oil which has been in contact with a relic or other sacred object, or has been taken from a church lamp.
    • n oil Oil of myrcia.
    • n oil Punishment with a birchen switch; a beating.
    • oil To smear or rub over with oil; prepare for use by the application of oil: as, to oil a rag; oiled paper or silk.
    • oil To anoint with oil.
    • oil To render smooth by the application of oil; lubricate: as, to oil machinery; hence, figuratively, to render oily and bland; make smooth and pleasing.
    • oil to make it water-proof, as in China, Japan, etc., where oiled paper is extensively used for umbrellas, water-pails, lanterns, rain-clothes, etc.
    • oil In chem., a termination denoting an ether derived from a phenol: as, anisoïl (formerly called anisol).
    • n oil Indian geranium or palmarosa oil (formerly called Turkish geranium-oil), a fragrant essential oil distilled from the leaves of Andropogon Schœnanthus, used in perfumery. It comes from the Bombay Presidency in India.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Banana oil never saw a banana; it's made from petroleum.
    • n Oil oil the juice from the fruit of the olive-tree: any greasy liquid
    • v.t Oil to smear or anoint with oil
    • ***

Quotations

  • Josh Billings
    Josh%20Billings
    “Advice is like castor oil, easy to give, but dreadful to take.”
  • Mother Teresa
    Mother%20Teresa
    “To keep a lamp burning we have to keep putting oil in it.”
  • Francis Beaumont
    Francis Beaumont
    “Our natures are a lot like oil, mix us with anything else, and we strive to swim on top.”
  • Oscar Wilde
    Oscar%20Wilde
    “To make a good salad is to be a brilliant diplomatist -- the problem is entirely the same in both cases. To know exactly how much oil one must put with one's vinegar.”
  • Ralph Nader
    Ralph Nader
    “Obviously, the answer to oil spills is to paper-train the tankers.”
  • Josh Mcdowell
    Josh Mcdowell
    “Forgiveness is the oil of relationships.”

Idioms

Burn the midnight oil - If you stay up very late working or studying, you burn the midnight oil.
***
Pour oil on troubled waters - If someone pours oil on troubled waters, they try to calm things down.
***
Snake oil - Advice or medicine which is of no use.
***
Snake oil salesperson - A person who promotes something that doesn't work, is selling snake oil.
***
Well-oiled - If someone is well-oiled, they have drunk a lot.
***
Well-oiled machine - Something that functions very well is a well-oiled machine.
***

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
OE. oile, OF. oile, F. huile, fr. L. oleum,; akin to Gr. . Cf. Olive

Usage

In literature:

Mix all well together, roll into little balls or sausages, and fry either in butter or boiling oil.
"New Vegetarian Dishes" by Mrs. Bowdich
In color, transparency, and mobility, this oil considerably resembles olive oil.
"Scientific American Supplement, No. 488, May 9, 1885" by Various
It should generally be seen that the oil-cooling coil is effective in keeping the oil cool.
"Steam Turbines" by Hubert E. Collins
Pour a layer of sterilised oil (olive oil, vaseline, or petroleum), 1 or 2 cm.
"The Elements of Bacteriological Technique" by John William Henry Eyre
In an instant the entire body of oil was a seething mass of flames, while the very rain seemed to add to their fury.
"Ralph Gurney's Oil Speculation" by James Otis
When blanched, dry them, then pound them fine, with rosewater, to prevent their oiling.
"The American Housewife" by Anonymous
The oiled floor can be wiped and dried, then oiled lightly from time to time.
"Scouting For Girls, Official Handbook of the Girl Scouts" by Girl Scouts
Add drop by drop chilled oil, working it in as you drop it.
"Dishes & Beverages of the Old South" by Martha McCulloch Williams
Got yore gun oiled up, Mormon?
"Rimrock Trail" by J. Allan Dunn
But he said he thought it would be best to buy oil stock with it.
"Joe Strong on the Trapeze" by Vance Barnum
Fine olive oil is the most delicate for frying; but the best oil is expensive, and bad oil spoils every thing that is dressed with it.
"The Cook's Oracle; and Housekeeper's Manual" by William Kitchiner
ELSBETH, HOLBEIN'S WIFE, WITH THEIR TWO ELDEST CHILDREN 126 Oils.
"Holbein" by Beatrice Fortescue
Pressure tongs for forcing lead collar oil posts of Vesta batteries, see page 415.
"The Automobile Storage Battery" by O. A. Witte
Some oils on the contrary, improve by keeping such as peppermint and lavender.
"The Candy Maker's Guide" by Fletcher Manufacturing Company
The springs may be cleansed with a stiff brush dipped in kerosene oil.
"American Red Cross Text-Book on Home Hygiene and Care of the Sick" by Jane A. Delano
Wipe the outside with oil rag, cleaning around the nipples with a hard brush and a stick; ditto hammers and the steel furniture.
"The Dog" by Dinks, Mayhew, and Hutchinson
The berries are used for extraction of oil which has a value for culinary purposes.
"Notes on Agriculture in Cyprus and Its Products" by William Bevan
Chicken chop-chop, palm-oil, peppers, hother t'ings halso, sar.
"The Blind Lion of the Congo" by Elliott Whitney
What was the meaning of setting up stones for a pillar and pouring oil upon them?
"The Bible Story" by Rev. Newton Marshall Hall
The oil and phlegm descended into the receiver, but the spirit, still ascending, blew up the bladder.
"Coal" by Raphael Meldola
***

In poetry:

Noon! drunk with oil and wine,
Tho' not a grief is thine,
Yet shalt thou shake with mine!
Woe is me!
"Woe Is Me" by Sydney Thompson Dobell
Let Israel, home returning,
Their lost Messiah see;
Give oil of joy for mourning,
And bind Thy church to Thee.
"O That the Lord's Salvation" by Henry Francis Lyte
Then the pirate captain ran to the rail
To signal to his crew,
But all he saw was a smear of oil
On the water's face that grew.
"The Ballad Of The Dinkinbar" by Cicely Fox Smith
In midst of affliction my table is spread;
With blessings unmeasured my cup runneth o’er;
With perfume and oil Thou anointest my head;
O what shall I ask of Thy providence more?
"The Lord Is My Shepherd" by James Montgomery
Oh, the day it was wet and the sky it was cloudy,
The trail was as slick as any oil-riggers's pants
When Ranger McCabe on his pony, Old Rowdy,
Came ridin' where walkin' was takin' a chance.
"Roll A Rock Down" by Henry Herbert Knibbs
The maid announced the meal in tones
That I myself had taught her,
Meant to allay my sister's moans
Like oil on troubled water:
I rushed to Jones, the lively Jones,
And begged him to escort her.
"Melancholetta" by Lewis Carroll

In news:

A supplier of heating oil, biofuels and other energy products, has acquired Rocky & Marciano Fuel Oil , a midsized family owned and operated company based in Holbrook.
1/4 cup melted coconut oil or vegetable oil (kosher for Passover).
Vegetable oil, preferably canola (do NOT use olive oil).
The story of Hanukkah is all about the miracle of the oil, and how enough oil for one day lasted for 8 days.
Iran Military Leader Says They Will Close Oil Strait If Oil Exports Blocked.
Two university labs found that over 60% of olive oil tested labeled as 'extra virgin' was in fact cheaper, lower-quality olive oils.
He did some work in the oil business for a while after graduation, but the oil industry was in a slump and very little drilling was being done.
Ted Jackson / The Times-Picayune Oil skimmers work to clean up oil released from a blown well in the Gulf of Mexico.
Oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill disaster is seen where it washed ashore on the beach in Gulf Shores Monday, June 28, 2010.
The 106,000 dwt crude oil carrier Mt Mastera within the Neste Oil fleet will be covered by the new maintenance agreement signed between Wärtsilä and Neste Oil.
The ruble 's standing also has been helped by rising oil prices and Russia's position as the world's second-largest exporter of oil after Saudi Arabia.
The African island nation of Sao Tome and Principe has inaugurated a series of public meetings to discuss future oil exploration in the country's territorial waters and to determine spending preferences for any future oil revenues.
Seaborne oil exports from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, except Angola and Ecuador, will decline by 770,000 b/d in the 4 weeks to Apr 11, according to shipping analyst Oil Movements (OM).
Residents of one Santa Barbara County community are upset over what they think are some old, abandoned oil wells causing increasing oil leakage in the ocean, and on the town's beach KCLU's Lance Orozco has the story.
The federal government's oil spill chief said Tuesday that seepage two miles from BP's oil cap is coming from another well, tamping down fears that leaks from the ruptured well mean it's unstable.
***

In science:

Big Data: FuturICT will provide the multi-disciplinary and scientific platform to help refine the “oil of the 21st century”, in other words: Big Data.
FuturICT
Here the two phases is referred as water and oil, designated by subscripts w and o, respectively.
A hybrid HDMR for mixed multiscale finite element method with application for flows in random porous media
Here λw (S ) = krw (S )/µw and λo (S ) = kro (S )/µo , where µo and µw are viscosities of oil and water phases, respectively, and krw (S ) and kro (S ) are relative permeabilities of oil and water phases, respectively.
A hybrid HDMR for mixed multiscale finite element method with application for flows in random porous media
Here µw /µo = 0.1, the ration between viscosity of water and oil.
A hybrid HDMR for mixed multiscale finite element method with application for flows in random porous media
For instance, the nodes might be people susceptible to some disease, trees which may be set on fire, or oil bubbles in a porous medium.
Interplay between Network Topology and Dynamics in Neural Systems
As shown from the phase diagram, they can be obtained by adding oil to a water-amphiphile solution (with a high enough amphiphile content), without crossing any phase barrier.
Amphiphilic Membranes
Moreover they can coexist with the water-rich and the oil-rich phases, having a water-oil ratio close to one.
Amphiphilic Membranes
Figure 10: Schematic oil-water-surfactant phase diagram with microstructures depicted.
Amphiphilic Membranes
Figure 11: Freeze-fracture of a bicontinuous microemulsion containing equal volumes of water and oil.
Amphiphilic Membranes
The shadow material decorates the oil-rich parts of the fracture face.
Amphiphilic Membranes
Conductivity measurements : one considers an oil-rich phase, where the solvent is an insulator and the membrane is an inverted bilayer containing charges coming from the surfactant counterions.
Amphiphilic Membranes
In the first case [104], one has studied an oil-rich sponge phase as a function of membrane concentration (this experiment will be denoted as “oil” dilution).
Amphiphilic Membranes
The inverse scattering intensity 1/I (q) measured in oil dilution experiments is shown in fig. 39 as a function of the wavenumber q .
Amphiphilic Membranes
Second, Root-Level scenario generation currently assumes a fixed OIL configuration.
Property-based Code Slicing for Efficient Verification of OSEK/VDX Operating Systems
In our recent search of 17.4 mg of silicone oil we found no evidence for the existence of fractional charge particles.
From Accelerators To Asteroids
***