oak

Definitions

  • WREATH OF OAK
    WREATH OF OAK
  • WordNet 3.6
    • n oak a deciduous tree of the genus Quercus; has acorns and lobed leaves "great oaks grow from little acorns"
    • n oak the hard durable wood of any oak; used especially for furniture and flooring
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Additional illustrations & photos:

The Oak and the Reeds The Oak and the Reeds
Old Gent in Oak Tree Old Gent in Oak Tree
Work of Timber Worms in Oak Work of Timber Worms in Oak
Owl in oak Owl in oak
White Oak White Oak
Swamp White Oak. Swamp Oak Swamp White Oak. Swamp Oak
Red Oak Red Oak
Pin Oak Pin Oak

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: In a day, a mature oak tree can draw approximately 50 gallons of water
    • Oak (Bot) Any tree or shrub of the genus Quercus. The oaks have alternate leaves, often variously lobed, and staminate flowers in catkins. The fruit is a smooth nut, called an acorn, which is more or less inclosed in a scaly involucre called the cup or cupule. There are now recognized about three hundred species, of which nearly fifty occur in the United States, the rest in Europe, Asia, and the other parts of North America, a very few barely reaching the northern parts of South America and Africa. Many of the oaks form forest trees of grand proportions and live many centuries. The wood is usually hard and tough, and provided with conspicuous medullary rays, forming the silver grain.
    • Oak The strong wood or timber of the oak.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: Oak trees do not produce acorns until they are fifty years of age or older
    • n oak A tree or shrub of the genus Quercus, a large and widely dispersed group, chiefly of forest-trees. In its nobler representatives the oak as “the monarch of the forest” has always been impressive, and it anciently held an important place in religious and civil ceremonies. Oak chaplets were a reward of civic merit among the Romans; the Druids venerated the oak as well as the mistletoe which grows upon it. The timber of many species is of great economic value, and the bark of several is used for tanning and dyeing and in medicine. (See oak-bark and quercitron.) One species furnishes cork (see cork). The fruit-cups of some are used in tanning (see valonia). (See also gall, kermes, and kermesoak.) The oak of English history and literature is chiefly the British oak, Quercus Robur, having two varieties, pedunculata and sessiliflora, often regarded as species. The species is distributed throughout a great part of Europe and in western Asia. It attains great age, with an extreme height of 120 feet. For ship-building its timber is considered invaluable, having the requisite toughness and most other qualities without extreme weight, and until recently it was the prevailing material of British shipping. It is also used for construction, cabinet-work, etc. Its bark is a tanning substance of great importance. In the eastern half of North America the white oak, Q. alba, in England sometimes called Quebec oak, occupies a somewhat similar but less commanding position. It rises from 70 to 140 feet, and affords a hard, tough, and durable wood, used, though not equal to the English oak, in ship-building, construction of all sorts, the manufacture of carriages and implements, cabinet-making, etc. The bur, overcup, or mossy-cup oak. Q. macrocarpa, is a tree of similar range, equal size, and even superior wood, which is not always distinguished from that of the white oak.
    • n oak One of various other trees or plants in some respects resembling the oak.
    • n oak The wood of an oak-tree.
    • n oak One of certain moths: as, the scalloped oak. [British collectors' name.]
    • n oak The club at cards.
    • n oak The red oak.
    • n oak Quercus Emoryi of Texas.
    • n oak Same as shingle-oak.
    • n oak The Turkey oak.
    • n oak Same as cañon live-oak.
    • n oak The wall germander, Teucrium Chamædrys.
    • n oak Gambel's oak, Q. Gambelii.
    • n oak The Texan oak, Q, Texana.
    • n oak Same as tarata.
    • n oak The mountain white oak, Q. Douglasii.
    • n oak Same as Gambel's oak.
    • n oak The California white oak, Quercus lobata.
    • n oak Same as Texan oak.
    • n oak The water-oak, Q. nigra.
    • n oak The laurel-oak, Quercus laurifolia.
    • n oak See Durand's oak.
    • n oak In Australia, a small malvaceous tree, Lagunaria Patersoni. See whitewood.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: The official state tree of Illinois is The White Oak
    • n Oak ōk a tree of about 300 species, the most famous the British oak, valued for its timber in shipbuilding, &c
    • ***

Quotations

  • Alice Mackenzie Swaim
    Alice Mackenzie Swaim
    “Courage is not the towering oak that sees storms come and go; it is the fragile blossom that opens in the snow.”
  • George Herbert
    George%20Herbert
    “Storms make the oak grow deeper roots.”
  • Source Unknown
    Source Unknown
    “Listening: A wise old owl sat in an oak. The longer he sat, the less he spoke. The less he spoke, the more he heard. Why can't we be like that wise old bird?”
  • William Congreve
    William%20Congreve
    “Music hath charms to soothe the savage breast, to soften rocks, or bend a knotted oak.”
  • Wilferd A. Peterson
    Wilferd A. Peterson
    “Let me look upward into the branches of the flowering oak and know that it grew great and strong because it grew slowly and well.”
  • John Lyly
    John Lyly
    “Many strokes overthrow the tallest oaks.”

Idioms

Little strokes fell great oaks - Meaning: even though something may seem impossible, if you break it up into small parts and take one step at a time, you will succeed.
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Mighty oaks from little acorns grow - Big or great things start very small.
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
OE. oke, ok, ak, AS. āc,; akin to D. eik, G. eiche, OHG. eih, Icel. eik, Sw. ek, Dan. eeg,
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
A.S. ác; Ice. eik, Ger. eiche.

Usage

In literature:

It may be built of plain-sawed red oak, or of quarter-sawed white oak.
"Mission Furniture" by H. H. Windsor
Either plain red oak or quarter-sawed white oak will do.
"Mission Furniture" by H. H. Windsor
I am glad, on account of the fellows left at Oak Hall, that the doctor discharged him.
"Dave Porter in the Gold Fields" by Edward Stratemeyer
In some parts of it there are a few small oak and beech plants, and also a few large oaks and beeches.
"The Forest of Dean An Historical and Descriptive Account" by H. G. Nicholls
The boards were of hard pine, and about as strong as oak.
"Down South" by Oliver Optic
Two warriors stood under the boughs of an oak and they were looking in the direction of the hollow.
"The Eyes of the Woods" by Joseph A. Altsheler
But she liked the old oak near the trail the best of all.
"The Tree-Dwellers" by Katharine Elizabeth Dopp
Do you remember the oak tree on the little knoll half a mile away?
"The Young Bank Messenger" by Horatio Alger
There was a large mossy root under a great oak, and, hot with his cutting, Bevis sat down upon it.
"Wood Magic" by Richard Jefferies
Only the miners at Oak Creek wore such spiked heels, the ranchers and other citizens being satisfied with heavy leather soles.
"Polly and Eleanor" by Lillian Elizabeth Roy
The Great Hall, as it was called, had best withstood the ravages of time, as it was wainscoted and ceiled in massive old oak.
"Patty's Friends" by Carolyn Wells
Oak-leather, a peculiar fungus found within growing oaks.
"The Sailor's Word-Book" by William Henry Smyth
Pines and oaks appeared, one after another, in almost monotonous regularity.
"Adventures of a Young Naturalist" by Lucien Biart
Their lands lay between a broad river and an old oak forest.
"Granny's Wonderful Chair" by Frances Browne
This probably explains why red oak dries more easily and rapidly than white oak.
"Seasoning of Wood" by Joseph B. Wagner
Do you remember the oak tree on the little knoll half a mile away?
"A Cousin's Conspiracy" by Horatio Alger
The spaces between were paneled with dark wood and an oak wainscot ran round the wall.
"Partners of the Out-Trail" by Harold Bindloss
Gil Wentworth, Tom's friend, had given young Cameron several pointers as to his attitude on arrival at the Seven Oaks station.
"Ruth Fielding at Briarwood Hall" by Alice B. Emerson
And the answering lazy smile of Sunny Oak was good to see.
"The Twins of Suffering Creek" by Ridgwell Cullum
On the north side of the house is another stairway of oak, also richly gilded.
"England, Picturesque and Descriptive" by Joel Cook
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In poetry:

Aye! like the sturdy forest oak,
Through which the winds do rattle,
Stands firmer from the heavy stroke,
Prepared for Truth to battle.
"No Enemies" by Benjamin Cutler Clark
For all of thee, thank heaven, is mine;
And I am happier made by thee;
As when the oak supports the vine,
'Tis glad and looketh cheerfully.
"Love's Benediction" by William Crafts
“O, I have been to the wild forest,
And have seiz’d the warrior stark;
Sivard there was taken by me,
And tied to the oak’s rough bark.”
"The Tournament (From The Old Danish)" by George Borrow
I've bent beneath thy ancient oak,
And sought for slumber in its shade,
And, as the clouds above me broke,
I dream'd to find the boon I pray'd;
"Flight To Nature" by William Gilmore Simms
The prophet's presence cheered their toil,
They watched the words he spoke;
Whether they turned the furrowed soil,
Or felled the spreading oak.
"The Borrowed Axe" by John Newton
Victor came to the forest,
Cried: 'Father, will she ever be true?'
And the oaks and the beeches shook their heads
And they answered: 'Not to you.'
"Victor" by W H Auden

In news:

He grew up in Oak Creek and graduated from Oak Creek Union High School in 1955.
Aged in old oak barrels and bottled at 95 proof, the taste is complex with hints of oak, spice, butter and sweet corn.
Glen Oaks residents will receive a letter this week after Glenville Parks and Recreation Director James McFarland confirmed on Monday, March 23, that the trees affected by oak wilt disease will be removed.
OAK RIDGE — The new owners of a troubled residential development have paid Roane County and the city of Oak Ridge nearly $1.6 million in past-due property taxes and chosen a new name for the community.
Lillian Ernestine "Tene" Buck, 87, of Oak Ridge, Tenn. A former longtime resident of Blytheville and the Half Moon Community, died Sunday in Oak Ridge.
Farragut 's Natalie Goetz and Oak Ridge's Merritt Monger chase after the ball at Oak Ridge on Tuesday, September 25, 2012.
IN EFFECT UNTIL OCT 18, 12:00 a.m. OAK RIDGE — Smoldering wood chips in oxygen-starved chambers will be used to generate steam heat for most of the buildings at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
High Street neighbors remember cut-down oak Palo Alto valley oak was a century or two old.
High Street neighbors remember cut-down oak Palo Alto valley oak was a century or two old.
Go Oak Cliff is a nonprofit neighborhood news and advocacy operation with a mission to "develop North Oak Cliff as the most livable community in the nation".
That is an apt description of oaks in the "Oak Grove" at Descanso Gardens.
LIVE OAK — Gov Rick Scott says he has deep sympathy for victims of massive flooding in Live Oak .
OAK PARK (AP) – Ernest Hemingway was born in Oak Park, but Frank Lloyd Wright lives here.
BOB FOWLER/NEWS SENTINEL An outdated sign advertises vacancies in Oak Ridge City Center, the new name for Oak Ridge Mall.
A large roughtail stingray cruised over the sand flat next to the Oak Bluffs Steamship Authority terminal in Oak Bluffs last week.
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In science:

Specifically, the online efficiency of OAKE-HDR and sOAKE-HDR, for each player, can be only one exponentiation.
A New Family of Practical Non-Malleable Diffie-Hellman Protocols
Here, we only aimed to highlight the relative advantage of reduction tightness of sOAKE over HMQV, as both HMQV and (s)OAKE are proved in the random oracle model.
A New Family of Practical Non-Malleable Diffie-Hellman Protocols
Note that the above security analysis is actually w.r.t. the public-key free variants of (s)OAKE, with players’ public-keys removed from the inputs of the functions of c, d, e.
A New Family of Practical Non-Malleable Diffie-Hellman Protocols
The analysis shows that OAKE and sOAKE remain their security in the CK-framework, even if the attacker A exposes the private values (y , Acy ) of the matching session (but not the session-key itself ).
A New Family of Practical Non-Malleable Diffie-Hellman Protocols
This provides extra security guarantee of (s)OAKE that is beyond the CK-framework.
A New Family of Practical Non-Malleable Diffie-Hellman Protocols
Using Corollary G.1 and Corollary G.2, we have the following corollaries about the security of (s)OAKE in the CK-framework w.r.t. any test-session between the identical players ˆA = ˆB .
A New Family of Practical Non-Malleable Diffie-Hellman Protocols
Even for the three-round version of OAKE (as well as HMQV) with explicit mutual authentications, there are also some inherent limitations.
A New Family of Practical Non-Malleable Diffie-Hellman Protocols
Following Section 4.2, in this section we make some further investigations on the security properties of (s)OAKE not captured by the CK-framework, which further strengthens the security guarantee of the (s)OAKE protocols.
A New Family of Practical Non-Malleable Diffie-Hellman Protocols
The first observation is: the security analysis of (s)OAKE in the CK-framework also implies that (s)OAKE is resistant to reflection attacks.
A New Family of Practical Non-Malleable Diffie-Hellman Protocols
This shows that (H)MQV does not well support deployment in the public computation model. (s)OAKE with public computations.
A New Family of Practical Non-Malleable Diffie-Hellman Protocols
We note that some modifications to (s)OAKE may be needed to give a formal proof in the public computation model, in accordance with the work of .
A New Family of Practical Non-Malleable Diffie-Hellman Protocols
Here, we stress that (s)OAKE, particularly sOAKE, very well supports the publiccomputation model even without such modifications.
A New Family of Practical Non-Malleable Diffie-Hellman Protocols
Discussion on security of OAKE with public computations.
A New Family of Practical Non-Malleable Diffie-Hellman Protocols
The knowledge (Acy , s) of a session of OAKE, where s = db + ey , d = h( ˆB , B , Y ) and e = h(X, Y ), is essentially useless under the DLP assumption for the attacker to violate other sessions other than sessions of the tag ( ˆA∗ , A∗ , ˆB , B , X, Y ) where ( ˆA∗ , A∗ ) may be different from ( ˆA, A).
A New Family of Practical Non-Malleable Diffie-Hellman Protocols
We remark this weakness is at the price of supporting the advantageous post-ID computability offered by OAKE.
A New Family of Practical Non-Malleable Diffie-Hellman Protocols
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