nucleus

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n nucleus the central structure of the lens that is surrounded by the cortex
    • n nucleus a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
    • n nucleus any histologically identifiable mass of neural cell bodies in the brain or spinal cord
    • n nucleus a small group of indispensable persons or things "five periodicals make up the core of their publishing program"
    • n nucleus the positively charged dense center of an atom
    • n nucleus (astronomy) the center of the head of a comet; consists of small solid particles of ice and frozen gas that vaporizes on approaching the sun to form the coma and tail
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: A shrimp has more than a hundred pair of chromosomes in each cell nucleus.
    • Nucleus (Biol) A body, usually spheroidal, in a eukaryotic cell, distinguished from the surrounding protoplasm by a difference in refrangibility and in behavior towards chemical reagents, which contains the chromosomal genetic material, including the chromosomal DNA. It is more or less protoplasmic, and consists of a clear fluid (achromatin) through which extends a network of fibers (chromatin) in which may be suspended a second rounded body, the nucleolus (see Nucleoplasm). See Cell division, under Division.
    • Nucleus A kernel; hence, a central mass or point about which matter is gathered, or to which accretion is made; the central or material portion; -- used both literally and figuratively. "It must contain within itself a nucleus of truth."
    • Nucleus (Zoöl) A visceral mass, containing the stomach and other organs, in Tunicata and some mollusks.
    • Nucleus (Bot) A whole seed, as contained within the seed coats.
    • Nucleus (Bot) An incipient ovule of soft cellular tissue.
    • Nucleus (Astron) The body or the head of a comet.
    • Nucleus (Zoöl) The central part around which additional growths are added, as of an operculum.
    • Nucleus (Zoöl) The tip, or earliest part, of a univalve or bivalve shell.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n nucleus A kernel; hence, a central mass about which matter is collected, or to which accretion is made; any body or thing that serves as a center of aggregation or assemblage; figuratively, something existing as an initial or focal point or aggregate: as, a nucleus of truth; a nucleus of civilization.
    • n nucleus In biology, the kernel of a cell, in general; a central or interior differentiated mass of protoplasm, found in nearly all cells, vegetable or animal, and consisting of an oval or rounded body composed of
    • n nucleus a nuclear membrane
    • n nucleus nuclear network, and
    • n nucleus nucleoplasm, and containing nucleoli. The nuclear network is made up of threads or fibrils which are composed of a deeply staining part, “chromatin,” and a feebly staining intermediate substance, “linin” or parachromatin (nucleohyaloplasm). In the meshes of the network is found the more fluid part of the nucleus, the nucleoplasm (achromatin, karyochylema, paralinin). Nucleoplasm, according to Carnoy, consists of a plastin network and a granular fluid, “enchylema.” The nuclear membrane is considered by some observers to be an inner limiting layer of cell-protoplasm surrounding the nucleus, by others to be a condensation of the peripheral portion of the nuclear network. There may be but one nucleus or several nuclei in one cell; and a nucleus may be nucleolate or not. Nuclei are generally proportionate in size to the cell containing them: in some instances, however, they form almost the entire cell mass. A structural difference between the nucleus and the rest of the cell-protoplasm is indicated by its greater resistance to powerful reagents, and by its varied reaction with stains. Functionally, the nucleus is the most important portion of the cell, as it is here that the complex series of changes known as karyokinesis take place, resulting in the division of the nucleus and followed by the division of the cell. This process of mitosic or indirect cell-division is found in all varieties of cells, whether vegetable or animal, fetal or adult, normal or pathological. Instances of cell-division not mitosic have, however, been noted. The nucleus of the human ovum was discovered by Purkinje in 1825, and hence is often called the corpuscle of Purkinje. Its usual name in text-books of anatomy is germinal vesicle. See cut under cell, 5.
    • n nucleus In zoology:
    • n nucleus In ascidians, the alimentary and reproductive viscera collectively, when these are aggregated into a mass, as in the salps.
    • n nucleus In protozoans, a solid rod-like or strap-shaped body, having in many cases the functions of an ovary in connection with a nucleolus (see nucleolus, 2).
    • n nucleus In echinoderms, the madreporiform body
    • n nucleus In anatomy, a collection of ganglion-cells in the brain or other portion of the cerebrospinal axis.
    • n nucleus In conchology, the embryonic shell which remains at the apex of the mature shell, as of a gastropod; also, the initial point from which the operculum of a gastropod grows. See protoconch.
    • n nucleus A body having a stronger or weaker attraction for the gas, vapor, or salt of a solution than for the liquid part of it, and therefore modifying by its presence the freezing-and boiling-points.
    • n nucleus In astronomy, the bright central point usually present in the head of a comet and often in a nebula.
    • n nucleus A genus of gastropods: same as Columbella.
    • n nucleus Same as claustrum, 1.
    • n nucleus A very small colony of honey-bees started for the purpose of rearing queens to exchange with the queens of full colonies, thus assisting in the prevention of swarming.
    • n nucleus no points at all;
    • n nucleus a perfect set. This result (set) is the nucleus EΩ.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Nucleus nū′klē-us the central mass round which matter gathers:
    • n Nucleus nū′klē-us (astron.) the head of a comet
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Quotations

  • Robert Collier
    Robert%20Collier
    “Plant the seed of desire in your mind and it forms a nucleus with power to attract to itself everything needed for its fulfillment.”
  • Robert Collier
    Robert%20Collier
    “First the stalk -- then the roots. First the need -- then the means to satisfy that need. First the nucleus -- then the elements needed for its growth.”
  • William J. Durant
    William%20J.%20Durant
    “The family is the nucleus of civilization.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L., a kernel, dim. fr. nux, nucis, nut. Cf. Newel post
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
L.,—nux, nucis, a nut.

Usage

In literature:

It is by no means complete, but the nucleus is there.
"The Patient Observer" by Simeon Strunsky
An old thatched cottage, about three miles from Hamburg, was the nucleus of his work.
"History of Rationalism Embracing a Survey of the Present State of Protestant Theology" by John F. Hurst
Russo and his diminished staff took Philip's little army as a nucleus.
"The Stowaway Girl" by Louis Tracy
The sketching-clubs up and down the country might form the nucleus of such a society, provided all professional men were rigorously excluded.
"Selections from Previous Worksand Remarks on Romanes' Mental Evolution in Animals" by Samuel Butler
In others the nucleus of mobs began to form, and, as the day wore off, Broad street had the aspect of a riot.
"Lights and Shadows of New York Life" by James D. McCabe
The nucleus of Bristol lies to the north of the river.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 4, Part 3" by Various
Perhaps the price of his hard-won service was to be the nucleus of his savings.
"The Atlantic Monthly, Volume 13, No. 80, June, 1864" by Various
With a small command, which was to serve as a nucleus to the force he hoped to raise, he was sent thither.
"The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government, Vol. 1 (of 2)" by Jefferson Davis
There the nucleus of each etude may be seen.
"Old Fogy" by James Huneker
The gang had begun to break up, but the nucleus would be the last to go.
"Police Your Planet" by Lester del Rey
Ferdinand kept it himself; it was to form the nucleus of his North Italian dominion.
"Henry VIII." by A. F. Pollard
No nucleus is visible in the living cell, but it has been shown that a nucleus is present.
"Elements of Structural and Systematic Botany" by Douglas Houghton Campbell
Is matter flowing out of the nucleus into the arms or along the arms into the nucleus?
"The Outline of Science, Vol. 1 (of 4)" by J. Arthur Thomson
Inside the mother-cell were to be found young developing cells of spherical shape, lacking however a nucleus.
"Form and Function" by E. S. (Edward Stuart) Russell
There was no stately nucleus.
"The Coast of Chance" by Esther Chamberlain
Yet in the sense of agency, he has already begun, as we saw, to find in himself a mental nucleus, or centre.
"The Story of the Mind" by James Mark Baldwin
The parent nuclei do not die within the new nucleus.
"Fantasia of the Unconscious" by D. H. Lawrence
Starting out with this nucleus of a future army, he swept everything before him.
"Sparkling Gems of Race Knowledge Worth Reading" by Various
There's the nucleus of a good trade here, if it had energy and knowledge brought to bear on it.
"Despair's Last Journey" by David Christie Murray
Peace having been signed with Great Britain in 1783, the nucleus of a navy then in existence was disbanded.
"The Naval History of the United States" by Willis J. Abbot
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In poetry:

I saw the fragments of the cloud
Join with the nucleus form,
Cirrus to Nimbus quickly bowed--
Sure harbinger of storm.
"On Brooklyn Bridge" by Jared Barhite
Such earnest natures are the fiery pith,
The compact nucleus, round which systems grow;
Mass after mass becomes inspired therewith,
And whirls impregnate with the central glow.
"To W.L. Garrison" by James Russell Lowell

In news:

Lady Bucs return experience, good nucleus .
How GM Nieuwendyk's tough decisions gave Stars a new nucleus .
Although far from Westside and downtown gallery enclaves, the aptly named Gallery Nucleus is truly at the heart of the artsy L.A.
Altuve, Martinez, Paredes: Astros' nucleus of the future.
The nucleus of a sports team gets only so many chances to define itself.
CRC Information Systems (CRC), Scottsdale, AZ, USA, has announced the release of its latest update, Version 25.0, for the MIS/ERP system, Nucleus .
Solid nucleus gives Irish optimism.
Nucleus Software Exports Ltd The Group's principal activities are to provide innovative and pioneering products and software solutions.
Math Science Nucleus announces $40,000 Grant.
Pacific Design Nucleus PC Portfolio.
Storm Lake wrestlers return strong nucleus .
Findings issued in a September study from Nucleus Research Inc have sparked some debate in the CRM space about return on investment.
Math Science Nucleus has finished remodeling the Wes Gordon Fossil Exhibit space to allow visiting groups to view Irvingtonian age (early Pleistocene) fossils of animals that roamed the East Bay before man arrived on the scene.
Nucleus Research released another inflammatory research study on ROI failure rates.
Two decades ago a small group of Canadian DCs organized the College of Chiropractic Sciences (CCS) for the purpose of preparing a nucleus of chiropractor-scholar-teachers.
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In science:

The unresolved core (a) in the F622W image noted by RS97 can be identified with a quasar spectral component clearly present in the central spectrum; i.e., we may have a direct view of a highly obscured quasar nucleus, or (more likely) at least of quasar light scattered from a region very close to the nucleus.
The Aligned z ~ 1 Radio Galaxy 3C 280
The process transforms one nucleus, called the micronucleus, through a large number of splicing operations into another nucleus, called the macronucleus.
How Overlap Determines the Macronuclear Genes in Ciliates
Roughly speaking, ǫ is the longitudinal extent of a fast-moving nucleus and ζ is the correlation length of the color distribution inside the nucleus.
Randomness in infinitesimal extent in the McLerran-Venugopalan model
Intuitively ǫ signifies the longitudinal extent of the whole nucleus and ζ stands for the longitudinal correlation length inside the nucleus.
Randomness in infinitesimal extent in the McLerran-Venugopalan model
These backgrounds prevent an effective trigger in central nucleus-nucleus collisions in a detector with large coverage.
Prototype Performance of Novel Muon Telescope Detector at STAR
Neutron capture on nucleus A is followed by sequences of γ transitions which finally populate the ground state of nucleus A + 1.
Random Matrices and Chaos in Nuclear Physics
An electron detector in the immediate vicinity of the nucleus provides the signal of the moment of preparation of the nucleus Y .
A Simple Solution of the Arrival Time Problem
Note that the restriction of the topological nucleus onto its one-skeleton coincides with the dual Moore diagram of the nucleus of G.
Combinatorial models of expanding dynamical systems
Investigation of hadron production in ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions has revealed convincing evidence for a thermal production mechanism.
Charmonium from Statistical Hadronization of Heavy Quarks -- a Probe for Deconfinement in the Quark-Gluon Plasma
Because of this fact, charmonium production is considered an important probe to determine the degree of deconfinement reached in the fireball produced in ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions.
Charmonium from Statistical Hadronization of Heavy Quarks -- a Probe for Deconfinement in the Quark-Gluon Plasma
In view of these wildely different approaches a thorough review of the relevant time scales was performed recently and will be important input for the understanding of charmonium as a probe for deconfinement in ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collision.
Charmonium from Statistical Hadronization of Heavy Quarks -- a Probe for Deconfinement in the Quark-Gluon Plasma
Section 4 will deal with the current status of charmonium production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at SPS and RHIC energies and its interpretation in terms of the statistical hadronization model.
Charmonium from Statistical Hadronization of Heavy Quarks -- a Probe for Deconfinement in the Quark-Gluon Plasma
The situation for e+e− collisions is, however, quite different from that for nucleus-nucleus collisions: (i) strangeness is not saturated, and (ii) additional, nonstatistical quantities such as the number of charm and beauty pairs in the system play crucial roles in the description.
Charmonium from Statistical Hadronization of Heavy Quarks -- a Probe for Deconfinement in the Quark-Gluon Plasma
Unfortunately no such measurement exists today and in practice we use the charm production cross section as measured or calculated via perturbative QCD methods in pp collisions and extrapolate it to nucleus-nucleus collisions assuming scaling with the number of hard scatterings.
Charmonium from Statistical Hadronization of Heavy Quarks -- a Probe for Deconfinement in the Quark-Gluon Plasma
We note in passing that the issue of shadowing or saturation effects is of an entirely different nature: within the framework of the statistical hadronization model we need to know the rapidity density for open charm production in nucleus-nucleus collisions.
Charmonium from Statistical Hadronization of Heavy Quarks -- a Probe for Deconfinement in the Quark-Gluon Plasma
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