nitrate

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • v nitrate treat with nitric acid, so as to change an organic compound into a nitrate "nitroglycerin is obtained by nitrating glycerol"
    • n nitrate any compound containing the nitrate group (such as a salt or ester of nitric acid)
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Plant life could not exist without lightning. Nitrogen, an essential food for plants, comprises 80% of the atmosphere, but in a form that is insoluble and unusable. It's the intense heat of lightning that forces the nitrogen to combine with oxygen in the air, forming nitrogen oxides that are soluble in water and fall to the earth in rain as dilute nitric acid. This reacts with minerals in the ground to become the nitrates on which the plants depend.
    • n Nitrate (Chem) A salt of nitric acid.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: Lightning keeps plants alive. The intense heat of lightning forces nitrogen in the air to mix with oxygen, forming nitrogen oxides that are soluble in water and fall to the ground in rain. Plants need nitrates to survive, so without lightning, plants could not live.
    • n nitrate A salt of nitric acid. The nitrates are generally soluble in water, and easily decomposed by heat. They are much employed as oxidizing agents, and may be prepared by the action of nitric acid on metals or on metallic oxids.
    • nitrate To treat or prepare with nitric acid: as, nitrated guncotton.
    • nitrate To convert (a base) into a salt by combination with nitric acid.
    • n nitrate Important experiments have been made on an industrial scale for the production economically of nitrates from atmospheric air by high-tension electrical discharges through moist air in the presence of basic materials.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Nitrate a salt of nitric acid
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
Cf. F. nitrate,
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
Fr.,—L. nitrum—Gr. nitron, natron, potash, soda—Ar. nitrún, natrún.

Usage

In literature:

During the war the use of nitrates was largely diverted to explosives manufacture.
"The Economic Aspect of Geology" by C. K. Leith
Here are the only large deposits of nitrate of soda in the world.
"Birdseye Views of Far Lands" by James T. Nichols
It contains the nitrates, or flesh-forming properties, in an excessive degree.
"Twenty-Five Cent Dinners for Families of Six" by Juliet Corson
The superficial ulcers may be touched with silver nitrate or with a 1 per cent.
"Manual of Surgery Volume Second: Extremities--Head--Neck. Sixth Edition." by Alexander Miles
Add a known volume of N/10 silver nitrate in slight excess to the combined solutions.
"All About Coffee" by William H. Ukers
It is next held over a Bunsen gas flame and the cotton is burned away, while the nitrates are converted into oxides.
"How it Works" by Archibald Williams
Reduce to powder separately, five drams of nitrate of potass, one dram of sulphur, and one of new-burnt charcoal.
"The Cook and Housekeeper's Complete and Universal Dictionary; Including a System of Modern Cookery, in all Its Various Branches," by Mary Eaton
Supposing we burned the place, you know, with nitrate of silver, or something like that.
"The Trimming of Goosie" by James Hopper
In the case of nitrate of potash no such snapping noise occurs.
"The Story of a Tinder-box" by Charles Meymott Tidy
Copper nitrate, salt called, 353.
"Common Science" by Carleton W. Washburne
Both nitrate of soda and nitrate of potassium are poisonous to cattle.
"Special Report on Diseases of Cattle" by U.S. Department of Agriculture
Also nitric acid was obtained from the nitrate of potassium.
"History of Human Society" by Frank W. Blackmar
To tell when an ampere of current is flowing requires the use of two silver plates and a solution of silver nitrate.
"Letters of a Radio-Engineer to His Son" by John Mills
Would immersion, instead of floating on the gallo-nitrate solution, remedy the evil?
"Notes and Queries, Number 234, April 22, 1854" by Various
The halogens may be estimated by ignition with quicklime, or by heating with nitric acid and silver nitrate in a sealed tube.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 6, Slice 1" by Various
Of non-metallic products nitrate of soda is by far the most important.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 6, Slice 2" by Various
Protosulphate of iron mixed with your nitrate bath is quite fatal.
"Notes and Queries, Number 235, April 29, 1854" by Various
The growing exports of nitrate from Chili at present, amount to about 1,200,000 tons annually.
"Solaris Farm" by Milan C. Edson
Exclusive of cost of nitrate plant.
"The Industrial Canal and Inner Harbor of New Orleans" by Thomas Ewing Dabney
The subject of dispute was the nitrate deposits of northern Chile.
"The United States and Latin America" by John Holladay Latané
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In poetry:

All round the world, lads, to ports without number,
Chile for nitrates, the Fraser for lumber,
Where charters might offer or cargoes might call —
But the homeward-bound chantey's the best of them all.
"The Ship's Good-Bye" by Cicely Fox Smith
I think she knew no distant lands, all sun and glare and smells,
And illy-ollying coolie gangs and chiming temple bells;
No lumber, grain or nitrate ports from Yukon to Peru,
No lone palm-girdled atolls in the false Pacific blue.
"Coasting Brigantine - Unnamed" by Cicely Fox Smith
"If ever I risk this life o' mine, as I 'ave done before,
To bring some Bremen merchant 'ome 'is nitrates or 'is ore,
I wish I may dream o' nothin' but sinkin' ships an' drownin' men,
An' wake out o' the dream, an' sleep, an' dream it all again,"—
"Squareheads" by Cicely Fox Smith

In news:

Corn crop could contain toxic nitrate .
Don't panic over water nitrate levels - doctor.
Cover crops prevent erosion, prevent nitrate leaching.
Boiling the water is not effective in removing the nitrates and at-risk residents should wait on the warning to be lifted before resuming the use of tap water.
Nitrate levels in the nine city wells were growing over time, and city personnel decided to evaluate technologies available to remove the nitrates .
A critical review of potential factors that affect fate and transport of nitrates in soils is essential to address groundwater nitrate contamination issues and determining corrective actions, they said.
Residents should determine their risks and, in some cases, take appropriate steps to reduce or eliminate nitrates in their drinking water.
Be aware of the potential for nitrate toxicity.
Would you like to know whether the stalk nitrates actually were higher because it was a dry year, or if the difference was because the crop had an extra 50 or 100 lbs.
The graph below shows stalk nitrate test results over several years in Greene county.
Nitrates are in the plants all the time, creating normal growth.
Laboratory testing confirmed that 29 head of cattle found dead in Cross Roads last week were the victims of nitrate poisoning.
The US Environmental Protection Agency last year found 21 percent of 337 wells sampled for nitrates in the lower Yakima Valley were at levels greater than federal drinking standards.
Are nitrite and nitrate's bad rep undeserved.
Remember that nitrate accumulates in the stalk and is more concentrated in the lower stalk than the leaves and upper stalk.
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In science:

Blaustein (2000), Combned effects of UV-B, nitrate, and low pH reduce the survival and activity level of larval Cascades Frogs (Rana cascadae), Arch.
Atmospheric Consequences of Cosmic Ray Variability in the Extragalactic Shock Model II: Revised ionization levels and their consequences
C for another 24 hours. Calcium doping was achieved by adding stoichiometric amount of calcium nitrate in the starting solution.
Effect of Chemical Pressure on the Magnetic Transition of Multiferroic Ca-BiFeO3
However in the Gd(NO3 )3 solution, strong absorption by Nitrate was evident below 350 nm, in the wavelength region matched with those of Cherenkov photons.
Gadolinium study for a water Cherenkov detector
TM C was measured by a cerium magnesium nitrate (CMN) thermometer bolted to the MC cold finger.
Method for Cooling Nanostructures to Microkelvin Temperatures
However, analysis of an ice core drilled in 2001 at Dome F for paleoclimate research has found spikes of enhanced nitrate ion concentration.
Astronomy in Antarctica
The CuPzN (copper pyrazine nitrate) system forms a clean, 1D Heisenberg S=1/2 system; however, the ordering temperature TN =70 mK makes it difficult to study at “low temperature” (T<
Some Recent Issues in Quantum Magnetism
Particularly nitrates are not believed to be well modeled by this semi-phenomenological Hamiltonian since Mn is a deep acceptors in this case and and charge fluctuations on the Mn d-levels may play important role.
Magneto-transport and magneto-optical properties of ferromagnetic (III,Mn)V semicondcutors: a review
Faugeras, B., Levy, M., Memery, L., Verron, J., Blum, J. and Charpentier, I., 2003: Can biogeochemical fluxes be recovered from nitrate and chlorophyll data ? A case study assimilating data in the Northwestern Mediteranean Sea at the JGOFS-DYFAMED station.
A reduced-order strategy for 4D-Var data assimilation
Ce was identified in 1953 by Caretto and Katcoff, at Brookhaven National Laboratory in the paper entitles Short-Lived Cerium Isotopes from Uranium Fission . 146Ce was produced from irradiation of uranyl nitrate and decay curves were measured with an end-window Geiger tube.
Discovery of the Cerium Isotopes
Add successively 7.5 ml of 1N sodium hydroxide, 7.5 ml of 5N ammonium hydroxide and 12 ml of 1N silver nitrate. Upon addition of silver nitrate, a transient brown precipitate forms, which should redissolve within a few seconds (see Note 3).
Silver Staining of Proteins in 2DE Gels
Add successively 7.5 ml of 1N sodium hydroxide, 7.5 ml of 5N ammonium hydroxide and 12 ml of 1N silver nitrate. Upon addition of silver nitrate, a transient brown precipitate forms, which should redissolve within a few seconds (see Note 3).
Silver Staining of Proteins in 2DE Gels
Silver stain solution II: and 12.5 ml of 1 N silver nitrate per liter.
Silver Staining of Proteins in 2DE Gels
The optimal setup for sensitization is the following. Prepare four staining boxes containing respectively the sensitizing thiosulfate solution, water (2 boxes), and the silver nitrate solution. Put the vessel containing the rinsed gels on one side of this series of boxes.
Silver Staining of Proteins in 2DE Gels
Rabilloud, T. (1992) A comparison between low background silver diammine and silver nitrate protein stains.
Silver Staining of Proteins in 2DE Gels
The gels are then stained by different silver staining methods described in the chapter. A: ultrafast method; B: fast silver nitrate; C: long silver nitrate; D: Ammoniacal silver without aldehyde fixation; E: Ammoniacal silver with formaldehyde fixation.
Silver Staining of Proteins in 2DE Gels
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