niobium

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n niobium a soft grey ductile metallic element used in alloys; occurs in niobite; formerly called columbium
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • n niobium (Chem) The chemical element of atomic number 41. Chemical symbol Nb. Atomic weight 92.91. Previously called columbium. See also Columbium.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n niobium Chemical symbol, Nb; atomic weight, 94. A metal of steel-gray color and brilliant luster. It was first discovered by Hatchett, in 1801, in a mineral obtained at Haddam, Connecticut. This metal, however, which Hatchett called columbium, was reexamined by Wollaston and pronounced identical with tantalum. Forty years later it was again discovered by H. Rose, who gave it the name of niobium, which is now generally adopted. Rose for some time believed that with the niobium another new metal (pelopium) was associated: but later he recognized the fact that the two were one and the same thing. Niobium has a specific gravity of about 4 (Roscoe). When heated in the air, it takes fire at a low temperature and burns with a vivid light. The chemical relations of the metal are akin to those of bismuth and antimony. See tantalite, columbite, and yttro-tantatile.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Niobium nī-ō′bi-um a rare metal, steel-gray in colour, discovered in the mineral Tantalite—sometimes called Columbium.
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
NL., fr. L. & E. Niobe

Usage

In literature:

CERIUM, LANTHANIUM, DIDYMIUM, COLUMBIUM, NIOBIUM, PELOPIUM, TITANIUM, URANIUM, VANADIUM, CHROMIUM, MANGANESE.
"A System of Instruction in the Practical Use of the Blowpipe" by Anonymous
The corresponding group consists of nitrogen, vanadium and niobium; they are triatomic, paramagnetic, and negative.
"Occult Chemistry" by Annie Besant and Charles W. Leadbeater
Chemically related to vanadium are the two elements tantalum and columbium or niobium.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 6, Slice 1" by Various
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In news:

The SpiTanIII software allows a user to select a tantalum or niobium oxide capacitor by various parameters, including capacitance , case size, or voltage rating.
File Photo An MSU engineer works on a niobium superconducting radio frequency cavity used for linear particle acceleration in a clean room at Michigan State University's National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory in this file photo.
Basic Element of the Inter­national Linear Collider design is a one-meter-long niobium cavity consisting of nine bead-shaped cells.
Geologist Matt Joeckel displays a core sample of carbonatite rock containing niobium and rare-earth elements, which was taken from a deposit near Elk Creek, Neb.
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In science:

In this study we bring together two highly promising enabling technologies for photonic quantum information science and technology (QIST): quantum waveguide circuits and superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs) based on niobium nitride nanowires.
Operating quantum waveguide circuits with superconducting single-photon detectors
The fit to the Niobium sample was obtained using the BCS temperature dependence of the gap, as one should expect for a conventional superconductor.
Superconductivity of Magnesium Diboride: Theoretical Aspects
Niobium also holds the record for the highest critical temperature of an element at normal pressure.
Assembling the puzzle of superconducting elements: A Review
Our experiment consists of two cylindrical sapphire resonators of 3 cm diameter and height supported by spindles at either end within superconducting niobium cavities , which are oriented with their cylindrical axes orthogonal to each other in the horizontal plane (see Fig. 11).
Rotating Resonator-Oscillator Experiments to Test Lorentz Invariance in Electrodynamics
One of the sapphires can be seen mounted inside the superconducting niobium cavity.
Rotating Resonator-Oscillator Experiments to Test Lorentz Invariance in Electrodynamics
It starts with a basic description of the Niobium-Tin intermetallic.
A Review of the Properties of Nb3Sn and Their Variation with A15 Composition, Morphology and Strain State
The basic element of the technology is a nine-cell 1.3 GHz niobium cavity, shown in Figure 2.1.
ILC Reference Design Report Volume 1 - Executive Summary
While the basic nine-cell form remains, the exact shape of the ‘cells’ is modified to reduce the peak magnetic field at the niobium surface.
ILC Reference Design Report Volume 1 - Executive Summary
Bottom-right: single-cell cavity produced from large-grain niobium material (Jefferson Lab).
ILC Reference Design Report Volume 1 - Executive Summary
Kneisel et al., “Preliminary Results from Single Crystal and Very Large Crystal Niobium Cavities,” PAC05 (2005).
ILC Reference Design Report Volume 1 - Executive Summary
Indeed, atoms have already been trapped near superconducting surfaces in two laboratories.20,21 A recent calculation22 shows that rubidium atoms trapped 1 µm away from a superconducting niobium surface at liquid helium temperature should have a long spin flip lifetime, in excess of 1000 s.
Progress in atom chips and the integration of optical microcavities
Niobium-Silicon near the Metal-Insulator Transition”, Phys.
Electrodynamics of correlated electron systems
The CMB polarimeter described in this paper is based on planar slot-antenna arrays.5 The signal is summed coherently by a network of niobium microstrips to synthesize a collimated beam.
Antenna-coupled TES bolometer arrays for CMB polarimetry
The signals from the sub-antennas are combined in phase by a superconducting niobium (Nb) microstrip network and transmitted to the TES.
Antenna-coupled TES bolometer arrays for CMB polarimetry
The bandgap frequency (∼690 GHz) of niobium microstrips provides a natural high frequency cutoff for CMB experiments.
Antenna-coupled TES bolometer arrays for CMB polarimetry
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