mutation

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n mutation a change or alteration in form or qualities
    • n mutation (genetics) any event that changes genetic structure; any alteration in the inherited nucleic acid sequence of the genotype of an organism
    • n mutation (biology) an organism that has characteristics resulting from chromosomal alteration
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Until very recently, no centipede was found that did not have an ODD number of leg pairs. Usually the number varies from 15 to 191 pairs, all odd. No one knows why. However, Chris Kettle, a doctoral student in ecology, recently found a centipede with 48 pairs of legs, an even number. The remarkable discovery was presented to the International Congress of Myriapodology in Poland and featured in the science journal Trends in Genetics. Mr. Kettle suspects a genetic mutation is responsible for the even number of leg pairs.
    • mutation (Biol) a variant strain of an organism in which the hereditary variant property is caused by a mutation{3}.
    • mutation (Biol) As now employed (first by de Vries), a cellular process resulting in a sudden inheritable variation (the offspring differing from its parents in some well-marked character or characters) as distinguished from a gradual variation in which the new characters become fully developed only in the course of many generations. The occurrence of mutations, the selection of strains carrying mutations permitting enhanced survival under prevailing conditions, and the mechanism of hereditary of the characters so appearing, are well-established facts; whether and to what extent the mutation process has played the most important part in the evolution of the existing species and other groups of organisms is an unresolved question.
    • n mutation Change; alteration, either in form or qualities.Mutations can occur by a change in the fundamental coding sequence of the hereditary material, which in most organisms is DNA, but in some viruses is RNA. It can also occur by rearrangement of an organism's chromosomes. Specific mutations due to a change in DNA sequence have been recognized as causing certain specific hereditary diseases. Certain processes which produce variation in the genotype of an organism, such as sexual mixing of chromosomes in offspring, or artificially induced recombination or introduction of novel genetic material into an organism, are not referred to as mutation. "The vicissitude or mutations in the superior globe are no fit matter for this present argument."
    • mutation (Biol) Gradual definitely tending variation, such as may be observed in a group of organisms in the fossils of successive geological levels.
    • mutation (Biol) The result of the above process; a suddenly produced variation.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: Snakes who have the genetic mutation of having been born with two heads have a hard time eating, because the two heads generally fight over which gets the food.
    • n mutation The act or process of changing; change; variableness.
    • n mutation Rotation; succession.
    • n mutation In phonetics, the change of a vowel through the influence of an a, i, or u in the following syllable: proposed for rendering German umlaut into English.
    • n mutation In music:
    • n mutation In medieval solmization, the change or passage from one hexachord to another, involving a change of the syllable applied to a given tone.
    • n mutation In violin-playing, the shifting of the hand from one position to another.
    • n mutation The change or alteration in a boy's voice at puberty.
    • n mutation In French law, transfer by purchase or descent.
    • n mutation A post-house.
    • n mutation In biology:
    • n mutation A sudden and inheritable change of type; a discontinuous variation; a sport.
    • n mutation One of a group of individuals which originate directly and immediately from pure-bred stock and have uniform or nearly uniform characteristics different from those of the parents. Mutations differ in form from their parents in much the same manner as closely related species differ from each other. The seeds from a single plant of one of the evening primroses. Œnothcra Lamarckiana, often produce several mutations in the first generation.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Mutation act or process of changing a vowel through the influence of one in the next syllable—the German umlaut: change: succession
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Quotations

  • Sir Walter Raleigh
    Sir%20Walter%20Raleigh
    “There is nothing exempt from the peril of mutation; the earth, heavens, and whole world is thereunto subject.”
  • Bertrand Russell
    Bertrand%20Russell
    “Freedom comes only to those who no longer ask of life that it shall yield them any of those personal goods that are subject to the mutations of time.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L. mutatio, fr. mutare, to change: cf. F. mutation,. See Mutable
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
Fr.,—L. mutabilismutāre, -ātum, to change—movēre, motum, to move.

Usage

In literature:

Another point of interest is the weight he attached in 1842-4 to "sports" or what are now called "mutations.
"The Foundations of the Origin of Species" by Charles Darwin
It is amusing to observe, with what different objects, and how diverse in spirit, similar mutations have been enforced.
"The History of Tasmania , Volume II (of 2)" by John West
The aesthetic impulse is here that of a theme and variations: to display all the wealth and mutations of the logic of language.
"Erasmus and the Age of Reformation" by Johan Huizinga
To such mutations is subject the fame of an author.
"Classic French Course in English" by William Cleaver Wilkinson
In mutation of arms a similar object was borne in mind.
"Notes and Queries, Number 74, March 29, 1851" by Various
They attack and change and mutate for your destruction.
"Deathworld" by Harry Harrison
A significant feature of sentiments and attitudes is inner tension and consequent tendency to mutation.
"Introduction to the Science of Sociology" by Robert E. Park
This, as we have seen, is the case for those variations which we have termed mutations.
"Mendelism" by Reginald Crundall Punnett
These forms DeVries calls mutations.
"The Meaning of Evolution" by Samuel Christian Schmucker
Sudden mutations give us new varieties, but not new species.
"Under the Maples" by John Burroughs
I was sure, in your calm way, you would be prepared for sudden mutation.
"Shirley" by Charlotte Brontë
Mutations have occurred involving the pigmentation of the body and wings.
"A Critique of the Theory of Evolution" by Thomas Hunt Morgan
Practically it is the artificial reproduction within the throat of an adult of the small larynx before the period of mutation.
"The Voice" by Frank E. Miller
A plant, developed by mutation?
"Where the World is Quiet" by Henry Kuttner
I watched every mutation of feeling.
"Wilson's Tales of the Borders and of Scotland, Volume III" by Various
Mutations may occur through the addition or the subtraction of single characters of the simple or unit type.
"The Social Direction of Evolution" by William E. Kellicott
People who die before puberty would find it a little difficult to pass on a mutation to their children.
"Sense of Obligation" by Henry Maxwell Dempsey (AKA Harry Harrison)
What are the local mutations that are to follow?
"Toronto of Old" by Henry Scadding
Being a Bibliographical Record of its various phases and mutations.
"A Catalogue of Books in English Later than 1700 (Vol 3 of 3)" by Various
Such is the mutation of human dogmatism.
"On Some Ancient Battle-Fields in Lancashire" by Charles Hardwick
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In poetry:

Mutation waited on those charms
I fancied half divine;
She fell into Miss Conduct's arms,
Miss Prudence fell in mine.
"Mutation" by William Hutton
Nay! stable His Infinity,
Beyond mutation or desire.
The visions pass. The worlds expire,
Unfathomed still their mystery.
"The Testimony of the Suns" by George Sterling
Dost dream to hold the ghostly heights
That soar beyond Mutation's reign,
Or sway the tides of Time and Pain,
Lord of the war Arcturus lights?
"The Testimony of the Suns" by George Sterling
Are these the towers His hands have wrought?
Dreams He the dream of end and plan
Dear to the finity of man,
And shall mutation rule His thought?
"The Testimony of the Suns" by George Sterling
Such are the final works of fate;
The birds to other branches flew;
And man, whatever his estate,
Must face that same mutation, too!
To-day, I stand erect and tall,
The morrow--may record my fall.
"The Fallen Tree." by Alfred Castner King
Life is fraught with many changes, checked with sorrow and mutation,
But no grief it ever lightened such a truth before to know:—
I behold them—father, mother—as they seem to contemplation,
Only three short weeks ago!
"Poems - Written On The Deaths Of Three Lovely Children" by Jean Ingelow

In news:

Doug Whitney of Port Orchard (right) possesses a rare gene mutation that causes early on-set Alzheimer's.
Single gene mutation found to cause insulin sensitivity.
Researchers have discovered a gene mutation that protects.
Newly discovered gene mutation offers malaria defense like sickle cell.
In Preventing Alzheimer's, Mutation May Aid Drug Quest.
Multiplicom Achieves CE Mark for BRCA1&2 Gene Mutation In Vitro Diagnostic.
The mutation accounts for only about 1 percent of all prostate cancers.
A genetic mutation allows Hudson River fish to adapt to PCBs.
New Genetic Mutation Linked to Ovarian Cancer.
Genetic mutation turns tot into superboy.
A new study shows that inhaling or ingesting the chemical can cause mutations that promote the growth of cancers, including lung cancer.
Researchers have identified a novel rare, germline mutation linked to a predisposition for both melanoma and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) that results in a five-fold increased risk of developing melanoma, RCC, or both.
Our love of summer barbecuing—and of meat in general—traces back to fortunate mutations in our DNA.
They conclude that a regulatory mutation in the Pitx1 gene is responsible for the pelvic reduction.
Familial Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris Is Caused by Mutations in CARD14.
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In science:

For all the experiments, probability of uniform crossover is 0.8 and probability of mutation is below 0.1.
Generalized Evolutionary Algorithm based on Tsallis Statistics
Note added : We are grateful to Atsushi Takahashi who informed us that he has a more direct proof of the equivalence in (7) based on mutations of full exceptional collections along the lines of Ebeling [5, 6] and Gabrielov .
Homological Mirror Symmetry and Simple Elliptic Singularities
Yoshino Mutations in triangulated categories and rigid Cohen-Macaulay modules, Preprint. arXiv:math.
Generalized cluster complexes via quiver representations
It is a natural assumption that random mutations in the past are independent from any random choices in the phylogeny reconstruction algorithm.
Inverting Random Functions III: Discrete MLE Revisited
The superscript (4) reminds us that this algebra is defined by the generalised com mutation relations with g = 4 (only the singular terms of the operator product expansions have been used in the construction of this isomorphism).
The Extended Algebra of the Minimal Models
Since u and v are in different subcubes, they are not connected by a viable mutational path and we see that splitting pairs are sensibly defined.
Splitting pairs and the number of clusters generated by random pair incompatibilities
At this point we will be free to follow the mutation from x to x in QF and the path from u to w is complete.
Splitting pairs and the number of clusters generated by random pair incompatibilities
Ratio of extinction events to the number of current taxa, where it may be observed that, each taxon has a chance to give birth to an unsuccessful mutation, as time goes on; and, the inset is for the size distribution of extant, where linearity is clear.
A physical model for competition between biological speciation and extinction
Using mutations coming from 3-term Pl¨ucker relation, we conjecture that they can be mutated to a special set of Pl¨ucker variable S .
$\LE$-diagrams and totally positive bases inside the nonnegative Grassmannian
Motivated from seed mutations of the cluster algebra, we will use Pl¨ucker mutation induced from 3-term-Pl¨ucker relations on our TP-bases.
$\LE$-diagrams and totally positive bases inside the nonnegative Grassmannian
We say S and S ′ are mutation equivalent if S ′ can be obtained from S by Pl¨ucker mutations.
$\LE$-diagrams and totally positive bases inside the nonnegative Grassmannian
Now identifying the mutations in the evolutionary process with jumps in the Markov process ℜ, we can trace out all the mutations. The average number of mutations in the evolutionary process is the average number of jumps in ℜ.
A new distance between DNA sequences
Hedenfalk et al. report a group of differentially expressed genes between tumors with BRCA1 mutations and tumors with BRCA2 mutations by analyzing one real microarray data set.
On a generalized false discovery rate
If we consider a large gene, (i.e., one which consists of a fairly large DNA sequence), it is reasonable to assume that the mutation will make a change never seen before and never to be reproduced again by a future mutation, that is, every mutation generates a new, unique al lele.
Recent progress in coalescent theory
Our assumptions will still be that the mutation rate is constant, and that, given the coalescence tree on n individuals (a realisation of Kingman’s n-coalescent), mutations fall on it as a Poisson point process with constant intensity θ/2 per unit length.
Recent progress in coalescent theory
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