molecule

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n molecule (nontechnical usage) a tiny piece of anything
    • n molecule (physics and chemistry) the simplest structural unit of an element or compound
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Researchers have developed odourless socks. The sock fabric is made by attaching molecules that contain chlorine called halamines to textile fibers
    • Molecule (Chem) A group of atoms so united and combined by chemical affinity that they form a complete, integrated whole, being the smallest portion of any particular compound that can exist in a free state; as, a molecule of water consists of two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen. Cf. Atom.
    • Molecule One of the very small invisible particles of which all ordinary matter is supposed to consist.
    • Molecule (Physics) The smallest part of any substance which possesses the characteristic properties and qualities of that substance, and which can exist alone in a free state.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: On average, there is about three molecules of ozone for every 10 million air molecules.
    • n molecule The smallest mass of any substance which is capable of existing in a separate form — that is, the smallest part into which the substance can be divided without destroying its chemical character (identity). All the physical changes of a body, as the dissolving of sugar in water, the melting of lead, the change of water into steam, the magnetization of steel, and so on, are phenomena which take place without the loss of identity of the substance itself, and which concern the relations of the molecules among themselves. Hence the molecule is taken as the physical unit. A homogeneous body is regarded as made up of similar molecules, whose relations determine its physical qualities, and particularly its physical state as a gas, liquid, or solid. A gas, according to the kinetic theory of gases, is composed of molecules darting about in paths which are very nearly rectilinear through the greater part of their lengths. Liquids are supposed to be composed of molecules which wander about, but have not nearly rectilinear paths; while solids are believed to be composed of molecules bound together by cohesion and moving in quasi-orbital paths. A molecule of any substance is conceived as made up of one or more atoms, whose relations to each other are considered in chemistry. (See atom.) The exact nature of the molecules is still largely a matter of hypothesis, but as regards their size Sir William Thomson has reached a quasi-definite conclusion as follows: “If a drop of water were magnified to the size of the earth, the molecules or granules would each occupy spaces greater than those filled by small shot and smaller than those occupied by cricket-balls.”
    • n molecule A very small particle or bit of something; a particle; an atom.
    • n molecule In ornithology, the tread or cicatricula of a fecundated ovum.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: The number of times a drowning person will rise to the surface depends on how much air is in his lungs. He could rise once, twice, or five times. Or not at all. Obese people will stay afloat longer than skinny people because fat contains air molecules.
    • n Molecule mol′e-kūl one of the minute particles of which matter is composed: the smallest mass of any substance which retains the properties of that substance
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Quotations

  • Glenn Close
    Glenn Close
    “I really think that effective acting has to do literally with the movement of molecules.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
Dim. fr. L. moles, a mass: cf. F. molécule,. See 3d Mole
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
Fr.,—L. moles, a mass.

Usage

In literature:

I walked on down the room, feeling as conspicuous as a cheer leader at a wake, while five pairs of eyes sorted me over molecule by molecule.
"Call Him Savage" by John Pollard
Turacin itself gives a peculiar two-banded spectrum, and contains about 7% of copper in its molecule.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 6, Slice 6" by Various
But what has built together the molecules of the corn?
"The Voice of Science in Nineteenth-Century Literature" by Various
The latter formula supposes the molecules to be rigid spheres of invariable size.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 6, Slice 7" by Various
The demon sees a hot molecule coming, he opens the door.
"A Feast of Demons" by William Morrison
Substituting this value for X, we find u = 66 cm./sec, for the velocity of a hydrogen molecule.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 6, Slice 8" by Various
It forms dark blue prismatic crystals containing 3, 4, or 6 molecules of water according to the temperature of crystallization.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 7, Slice 3" by Various
Are his molecules loose and do they edge aside for obstacles, compress together when he wants to shrink, and so on?
"The Giants From Outer Space" by Geoff St. Reynard
Consider now the problem of diffusion in a region containing two kinds of molecules A and B of unequal mass.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 8, Slice 4" by Various
A slight rumble went through the ship, a rumble seemingly radiated from every molecule, from every atom, in the vessel.
"Planet of the Gods" by Robert Moore Williams
The solids and liquids of its substance were resolved into their component molecules or atoms.
"Triplanetary" by Edward Elmer Smith
When the molecules are made to vibrate, they can assume such new positions more readily.
"The Telephone" by A. E. Dolbear
When hydrolyzed, either by dilute acids or by maltase, one molecule of maltose yields two molecules of glucose.
"The Chemistry of Plant Life" by Roscoe Wilfred Thatcher
Presence in the blood stream of blood-foreign substances calls forth a ferment that will digest them and split them into molecules.
"The Social Gangster" by Arthur B. Reeve
On the other hand, there is evidence that molecules do not invariably act according to this law.
"A Mechanico-Physiological Theory of Organic Evolution" by Carl Von Nägeli
A further striking characteristic of haemoglobin is that it contains iron in its molecule.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 4, Slice 1" by Various
Mind and Matter are now so much mixed, that they may be interchangeable molecules; who knows?
"Punch, or the London Charivari. Volume 93, September 10, 1887" by Various
Borax crystallizes with ten molecules of water, the composition of the crystals being Na2B4O7 + 10H2O.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 4, Slice 2" by Various
She had the molecules of the pitcher displaced before it was half way to her.
"Earth Alert!" by Kris Neville
Molecules from each piece have flowed into the other, mixing just as two very viscous liquids would do.
"The Year When Stardust Fell" by Raymond F. Jones
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In poetry:

Remember the walker upon it?
Meaning leaks from the molecules.
The chimneys of the city breathe, the window sweats,
The children leap in their cots.
The sun blooms, it is a geranium.
"Mystic" by Sylvia Plath

In news:

Disteardimonium Hectorite This molecule is like a squid with a nitrogen body and fatty alcohol tentacles.
Her books include Chasing Molecules and High Tech Trash.
Researchers synthesized the basic ingredients of RNA, a molecule from which the simplest self-replicating structures are made.
Evotec to Run NIH Small Molecule Repository .
Reshuffling water molecules could propel Navy's aircraft, but tech has a long way to go.
A Sisyphean task for polar molecules.
Solar cell consisting of a single molecule.
Solar cell consists of a single molecule.
Previously focused on the synthesis of plant molecules, the.
Previously focused on the synthesis of plant molecules, the Northwestern University researcher now aims to use his knowledge to help develop cancer-killing drugs that won't make patients sick.
Chemists synthesize smallest five-ringed molecule.
Chemists have made and imaged the smallest possible molecule containing five rings.
France-based Domain is dedicated to the discovery and early development of small molecules targeting GPCRs.
What's amazing is how much of the new value in the ADHD field has come from new formulations, not new molecules .
Pharmacyclics Inks Agreement With Novo Nordisk for Molecule Inhibitor.
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In science:

Including a second laser, bound-bound transitions remove excited molecules from state |2i and create stable molecules in state |3i.
Improved efficiency of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in photoassociation of a Bose-Einstein condensate
In second quantized notation, boson annihilation operators for atoms, primarily photoassociated molecules, and stable molecules are denoted, respectively, by a, b, and g .
Improved efficiency of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in photoassociation of a Bose-Einstein condensate
The laser-matter interactions that drive the atom-molecule and molecule-molecule transitions are characterized by their respective Rabi frequencies κ and Ω.
Improved efficiency of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in photoassociation of a Bose-Einstein condensate
When the collective-enhanced atom-molecule coupling satisfies χ0 & ωρ , transitions to noncondensate modes are expected to dominate atom-molecule conversion.
Improved efficiency of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in photoassociation of a Bose-Einstein condensate
An element of charge at position s (specified in two dimensions relative to the molecule centerof-mass line) on the molecule responds to the local electric field according to χ0 (s; u) given by (3).
van der Waals interaction of parallel polymers and nanotubes
The PP molecules are oriented similarly to PVC, and the PE molecules are oriented with the long axis towards each other.
van der Waals interaction of parallel polymers and nanotubes
Writhe fluctuations can be suppressed either by increasing the tension on the molecule (PWLC model) or by taking into account the physical thickness of the molecule (WLRC model).
DNA Elasticity : Topology of Self-Avoidance
For brevity, we shall refer to these molecules as ‘composite soft-sphere molecules’ (CSSMs).
Dipolar interactions, molecular flexibility, and flexoelectricity in bent-core liquid crystals
For brevity, we shall refer to these molecules as ‘composite soft-sphere molecules with tails’ (CSSMTs).
Dipolar interactions, molecular flexibility, and flexoelectricity in bent-core liquid crystals
BEDO -TTF molecule have been studied. BEDO-TTF molecule is an analogue of BEDT-TTF, where four lighter oxygen atoms replace outer sulfur ones .
Paramagnetism of layered organic conductors (BEDO-TTF)_2ReO_4*H_2O and (BEDT-TTF)_xDy(NO_3)_z: analysis of phase transition at 200 K
For Θjump we assume 44.5◦ , meaning that a rotation about the C3 axis of the molecule – which is approximately in the [111] direction – brings the molecule from one standard orientation to the other.
Static and dynamic Jahn-Teller effect in the alkali metal fulleride salts A4C60 (A = K, Rb, Cs)
As it has been mentioned earlier, one molecule cannot distort into this point group, but the spatial average of D2h molecules randomly distributed over two standard orientations will produce the required fourfold axis.
Static and dynamic Jahn-Teller effect in the alkali metal fulleride salts A4C60 (A = K, Rb, Cs)
Since it is not possible to measure the phases of all the molecules, the determinations an observer could make about the position of the piston would be modelled by pro jection operators whose images include an ensemble of piston states with random phases, coupled to gas molecule states.
Categorical Geometry and the Mathematical Foundations of Quantum General Relativity
Figure 3 shows the calculated column densities at 1 Myrs for several important molecules and illustrates how some molecules are greatly affected by the inclusion of diffusion, whereas others, notably N2H+ and NH3 are relatively unaffected.
Turbulence driven diffusion in protoplanetary disks - chemical effects in the outer disk
Most molecules show an increase in column density, but some nitrogen–bearing molecules are decreased.
Turbulence driven diffusion in protoplanetary disks - chemical effects in the outer disk
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