# mathematics

## Definitions

• WordNet 3.6
• n mathematics a science (or group of related sciences) dealing with the logic of quantity and shape and arrangement
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
• Interesting fact: Neptune was the first planet in our solar system to be discovered by mathematics
• n Mathematics That science, or class of sciences, which treats of the exact relations existing between quantities or magnitudes, and of the methods by which, in accordance with these relations, quantities sought are deducible from other quantities known or supposed; the science of spatial and quantitative relations.Mathematics embraces three departments, namely: 1.Arithmetic. 2.Geometry, including Trigonometry and Conic Sections. 3.Analysis, in which letters are used, including Algebra Analytical Geometry, and Calculus. Each of these divisions is divided into pure or abstract, which considers magnitude or quantity abstractly, without relation to matter; and mixed or applied, which treats of magnitude as subsisting in material bodies, and is consequently interwoven with physical considerations.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
• Interesting fact: Tycho Brahe, a 16th century astronomer, lost his nose in a duel with one of his students over a mathematical computation. He wore a silver replacement nose for the rest of his life
• n mathematics The science of quantity; the study of ideal constructions (often applicable to real problems), and the discovery thereby of relations between the parts of these constructions, before unknown. The observations being upon objects of imagination merely, the discoveries of mathematics are susceptible of being rendered quite certain. The first considerable advances in mathematics were made by the Greeks, whose greatest geometers, Euclid, Archimedes, and Apollonius, flourished in or about the third century b. c. After their time not very much progress was made until the seventeenth century, but since then the progress of discovery has been continuous. See absolute, algebra, arithmetic, equation, function, geometry, group, infinite, infinitesimal, number, problem, quantity, space, theorem, etc.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
• Interesting fact: Saint Isidore, or Seville, who lived in the 17th century, was believed to have written the world's first encyclopedia, the Etymologies. It included entries on medicine, mathematics, history and theology.
• Mathematics the science of magnitude and number, and of all their relations—usually divided into Pure, and Mixed or Applied, the first including all deductions from the abstract, self-evident relations of magnitude and number—the second, the results arrived at by applying the principles so established to certain relations found by observation to exist among the phenomena of nature
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## Quotations

• Paul Klee
“To emphasize only the beautiful seems to me to be like a mathematical system that only concerns itself with positive numbers.”
• Camille Paglia
“Modern bodybuilding is ritual, religion, sport, art, and science, awash in Western chemistry and mathematics. Defying nature, it surpasses it.”
• Susan Sontag
“The love of the famous, like all strong passions, is quite abstract. Its intensity can be measured mathematically, and it is independent of persons.”
• Izaak Walton
“Angling may be said to be so like the mathematics that it can never be fully learned.”
• Albert Einstein
“As far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain, and as far as they are certain, they do not refer to reality.”
• Bertrand Russell
“Mathematics, rightly viewed, poses not only truth, but supreme beauty a beauty cold and austere, like that of sculpture.”

## Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
F. mathématiques, pl., L. mathematica, sing., Gr. (sc. ) science. See Mathematic, and -ics
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
Fr. mathématique—L. mathematica—Gr. mathēmatikē (epistēmē, skill, knowledge), relating to learning—mathēmamanthanein, to learn.

## Usage

### In literature:

But the fault is not the fault of mathematics; for mathematics always gives back to us exactly what we have put into it.
"Amusements in Mathematics" by Henry Ernest Dudeney
The mathematical student soon after had one of those providential meetings which decide a young man's future fate.
"Biographies of Distinguished Scientific Men" by Francois Arago
It is through practice in solving problems of this kind that the pupil acquires what the employer called mathematical intelligence.
"Wage Earning and Education" by R. R. Lutz
Mathematics and Metaphysics excluded.
"The Relations Between Religion and Science" by Frederick, Lord Bishop of Exeter
But astrology was not the only end to which mathematics were then turned.
"History Of Egypt From 330 B.C. To The Present Time, Volume 11 (of 12)" by S. Rappoport
The Commissioners' Scheme of Mathematics and Natural Science objectionable.
"Practical Essays" by Alexander Bain
But dull minds are never either intuitive or mathematical.
"Pascal's Pensées" by Blaise Pascal
Which shows that there is an error in your mathematics.
"August First" by Mary Raymond Shipman Andrews and Roy Irving Murray
Hypatia gave lectures on mathematics; and there was a fallacy abroad then as there is now that the feminine mind is not mathematical.
"Little Journeys To The Homes Of Great Teachers" by Elbert Hubbard
All his spare time was given up to whittling, pounding, sawing, and making mathematical calculations.
"Little Journeys to the Homes of the Great - Volume 12" by Elbert Hubbard
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### In poetry:

O Bejants! blessed, beardless men,
Who strive with Euclid in your attics,
For worlds I would not taste again
The deep delights of Mathematics.
"The Delights of Mathematics" by Robert Fuller Murray
That boy with the grave mathematical look
Made believe he had written a wonderful book,
And the ROYAL SOCIETY thought it was true!
So they chose him right in; a good joke it was, too!
"The Boys" by Oliver Wendell Holmes
Instead of crack-brained poets in their attics
Filling thin volumes with their flowery talk,
There shall be books of wholesome mathematics;
The tutor with his blackboard and his chalk.
"The Coming Era" by Oliver Wendell Holmes
So turn him over on his toes again;
Four pin-point toes, and a problematical thumb-piece,
Four rowing limbs, and one wedge-balancing head,
Four and one makes five, which is the clue to all mathematics.
"Tortoise Shell" by D H Lawrence
Physics, metaphysics, logic, mathematics--all the lot
Every wisdom--crammed octavo he has mastered and forgot,
With the ghosts of dead professors standing guard beside them all;
And the room is fall of shadows which their lettered backs recall.
"The Last Survivor" by Oliver Wendell Holmes
It needed Pythagoras to see life playing with counters on the living back
Of the baby tortoise;
Life establishing the first eternal mathematical tablet,
Not in stone, like the Judean Lord, or bronze, but in life-clouded, life-rosy tortoise shell.
"Tortoise Shell" by D H Lawrence

### In news:

I sometimes think that the very precision of mathematics that gives it much of its power can lead to problems when it comes to mathematics education in the lower school grades.
A Mathematical Approach, second edition Abraham Sinkov.
Anneli Lax New Mathematical Library, Vol 22 ISBN: 978-0-88385-647-5.
On Tuesday, it was finally resolved using a mathematical diagram .
Jean-Paul Pier Professor Emeritus, University of Luxembourg April 3, 2008, 6:30 pm Mathematical Association of America Carriage House 1781 Church Street, NW Washington, DC 20036.
In the picture above, Nicalina Del Rosario, Jacquiline David, and Alexa Almeida, work collaboratively in Miss Chapmanâ€™s Mathematics Class to find equivalent fractions.
The subtraction formulas appeared in the December, 1999 issue of Mathematics Magazine.
He will receive the award at the International Congress on Mathematical Education (ICME 11), in Monterrey, Mexico, in early July.
It now includes 37,094 articles from The American Mathematical Monthly, from 1894 to 2003.
) Almost 200 people are there, waiting to hear what he¹s got to say about current hot topics in mathematics research.
Above, Allison Evans/Clay Mathematics Institute.
Our president never acquired anything more than the barest rudiments of elementary mathematics.
Gentry, 35, an assistant mathematics professor at the.
First encounter with Mathematics .
Tesla earned degrees in physics, mathematics, and mechanical and electrical engineering from the Austrian Polytechnic Institute.
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### In science:

As already pointed out, the speciﬁcity of physics (and of other sciences aiming at describing real systems in a mathematical language) is to give an interpretation, in connection with the real world, to the mathematical ob jects involved in the proposed description.
Global fluctuations in physical systems: a subtle interplay between sum and extreme value statistics
Ledoux, The concentration of measure phenomenon, Mathematical Surveys and Monographs, vol. 89, American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, 2001.
Circular Law Theorem for Random Markov Matrices
Goodearl, Partial ly ordered abelian groups with interpolation, Mathematical Surveys and Monographs, no. 20, American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, 1986.
The Range of a Class of Classifiable Separable Simple Amenable C*-Algebras
Kurtz, Large deviations for stochastic processes, Mathematical Surveys and Monographs, vol. 131, American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, 2006.
Directed polymer in random environment and last passage percolation
Tignol, The book of involutions, American Mathematical Society Colloquium Publications, vol. 44, American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, 1998, With a preface in French by J.
Gradings on symmetric composition algebras
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