manganese

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n manganese a hard brittle grey polyvalent metallic element that resembles iron but is not magnetic; used in making steel; occurs in many minerals
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • n Manganese (Chem) An element obtained by reduction of its oxide, as a hard, grayish white metal, fusible with difficulty (melting point 1244° C), but easily oxidized. Its ores occur abundantly in nature as the minerals pyrolusite, manganite, etc. Symbol Mn. Atomic number 25; Atomic weight 54.938 [C=12.011].☞ An alloy of manganese with iron (called ferromanganese) is used to increase the density and hardness of steel.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n manganese Chemical symbol, Mn; atomic weight, 55. A metal having a remarkable affinity for, and in some respects a close resemblance to, iron, of which it is an extremely frequent associate. It differs from iron, however, in that it is not used at all by itself in the arts, although of great interest and importance as connected with the manufacture of iron, and as modifying by its presence in small quantity the character of the product obtained. The use of the black oxid of manganese for removing the coloring matters from glass was known to the ancients, and is mentioned by Pliny, but the nature of the material thus used was not understood until quite modern times. This ignorance was shown in the confusion of the oxid of manganese with the magnetic oxid of iron, the lodestone (Latin magnes and magnesius lapis), and the former was called magnesia by chemists in the middle ages, apparently in conformity with Pliny's idea of a dual (masculine and feminine) nature in some metals, manganese not having the attractive power of the magnet, and being on that account considered feminine. Other variants (in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries) of the name of the ore used by glass-makers were magnosia, mangadesum, and manganensis. After what we now call magnesia had received the name of magnesia alba, apparently from the idea that this substance was in some way related to the oxid of manganese, the latter began to be called magnesia nigra. From the middle of the eighteenth century the combinations of manganese were studied by various chemists, and finally, in 1774, the metal manganese was isolated by Gahn, but for years there was much confusion in regard to its specific name, and it was not until after the beginning of the present century that the name manganese (mangan in German) began to be generally adopted. The Latin termination in -um (manganesium) is rarely used in modern technical works. This metal has never been found native. As eliminated from its ores by chemical processes, it is grayish-white in color, resembling cast-iron, but varying considerably in hardness and luster according to the nature of the methods by which it was obtained. It is very hard and brittle, and has a specific gravity of about 8. It oxidizes rapidly on exposure to the air. Manganese resembles iron in that its ores are widely diffused, and differs from that metal remarkably in the fact that, on the whole, its ores are only rarely found in considerable quantity in any one locality, while those of iron exist in abundance in many regions. The important ores of manganese are all oxids, and of these the peroxid (pyrolusite), called in commerce the black oxid of manganese, or simply manganese, is the most valuable and important. Other manganiferous minerals (all oxids) are braunite, hausmannite, psilomelane, and various earthy mixtures called bog-manganese, wad, cupreous manganese, etc. Practically, the ore called manganese in commerce is a mixture of various oxids, different samples differing greatly in value, which value has to be determined by chemical analysis. The ores and salts of manganese are of very considerable importance in chemical manufactures, both as bleaching and oxidizing reagents. The nature and importance of this metal in the manufacture of iron and steel will be found indicated under steel and spiegel.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Manganese mang-ga-nēz′ or mang′ga-nēz a hard and brittle metal of a grayish-white colour, somewhat like iron
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
F. manganèse, It. manganese, sasso magnesio,; prob. corrupted from L. magnes, because of its resemblance to the magnet. See Magnet, and cf. Magnesia
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
O. Fr. manganese, a material used in making glass, prob. from It. and cog. with magnesia.

Usage

In literature:

The heat throws off the oxygen from the red lead or manganese.
"Handwork in Wood" by William Noyes
Some metals are non-magnetic, this applying to iron if combined with manganese.
"Electricity for Boys" by J. S. Zerbe
The propeller-blades of large steamships are usually made of manganese bronze.
"Commercial Geography" by Jacques W. Redway
Manganese in plants, 73.
"Elements of Agricultural Chemistry" by Thomas Anderson
It is easy to estimate its weight, by separating it from the manganese, and finding how much the latter has lost.
"Conversations on Chemistry, V. 1-2" by Jane Marcet
Manganese is mined in Minas Geraes for export.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 4, Slice 4" by Various
Manganese bronze is not affected by sea-water.
"The New Gresham Encyclopedia. Vol. 1 Part 1" by Various
There is abundance of minerals, including lead, copper, manganese and especially iron.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 2, Slice 5" by Various
Wolfram (tungstate of iron and manganese) occurs in some of the states, notably in New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and Queensland.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 2, Slice 8" by Various
Presence of silicon tends to prevent, presence of manganese tends to assist, the production of the metastable systems.
"The Phase Rule and Its Applications" by Alexander Findlay
Manganese is obtained from Huelva, Oviedo, Teruel, Almeria, Murcia, and Zamora.
"Spain" by Wentworth Webster
We buy manganese from them, among other things.
"Sentiment, Inc." by Poul William Anderson
Manganese, 1 ounce and a half.
"The American Reformed Cattle Doctor" by George Dadd
The slip may be coloured red or brown with iron and manganese oxides or applied white to a coloured body.
"Pottery, for Artists Craftsmen & Teachers" by George J. Cox
Zinc, quicksilver, lead, manganese, and large deposits of coal have been found.
"Alden's Handy Atlas of the World" by John B. Alden
Gold, manganese, copper and coal are found in the neighbourhood.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 12, Slice 1" by Various
Manganese dioxide 40 parts.
"Electric Bells and All About Them" by S. R. Bottone
The mines of gold, silver, tin, copper, and manganese, are also very rich, and their export is great.
"Australian Pictures" by Howard Willoughby
Iron, coal, copper and manganese are mined.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 13, Slice 4" by Various
The last enterprise had been manganese.
"Mushroom Town" by Oliver Onions
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In news:

Featured in the Nov 4-6, 2011 auction is this Mosler Bank Safe, No 2700, made of manganese steel with a time lock.
This reserved red reflects its granite and manganese vineyard.
Made from high-carbon manganese steel, the Spear Head Spade is thicker and stronger than the average shovel.
Lead, Manganese and Mercury: Metals in Personal Care Products.
Serrano Water District in Villa Park, Calif, agreed to implement and test a water treatment system at the Villa Park Dam in an effort to explore affordable solutions for reducing high levels of iron and manganese in its water stream.
And that's bad, because deficiencies in micronutrients like manganese, copper, zinc, iron or boron can put a hit on yield.
Millet , a light, fluffy gluten-free grain that is a good source of magnesium, manganese and phosphorus, lends itself beautifully to both sweet and savory kugels.
In the fall of 2008, AdEdge was selected by the village of Corona, N.M. To design, manufacture and start up a water treatment system for the removal of iron and manganese.
In November 2009 AdEdge was selected by the Resort Village of Kannata Valley (RVKV) to supply an arsenic, iron, manganese and turbidity treatment system for their community in Silton, SK, Canada.
Revision of E2209 - 02(2006)e2 Standard Test Method for Analysis of High Manganese Steel Using Atomic Emission Spectrometry.
The Georgia Department of Transportation wants to shift a portion of the US Highway 411 Connector south to avoid the area around this old manganese mine on Dobbins Mountain GDOT is asking federal officials to approve the altered route.
WK39719 Standard Test Method for Analysis of High Manganese Steel Using Atomic Emission Spectrometry.
Last fall, its organizational tactics helped convince metal and mining behemoth Eramet to spend $170 million to clean up its Marietta manganese factory.
Ohio farmer Bill Bayliss thought some of his fields had a manganese deficiency, and did some tissue testing to find out for sure.
Not only will these delicious cups be in fashion at your next patriotic celebration, they also pack a healthy dose of fiber as well as manganese and vitamin C.
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In science:

Owing to a wide potential of these A-site substitutions, manganese oxides exhibit rich physics including the CMR phenomena.
Anomaly in Spin Excitation Spectrum of Double-Exchange Systems with Randomness
Phase competition and randomness play a key role in the colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) phenomena in manganese oxides [1,2].
Randomness Effect on Multicritical Phenomena in Double-Exchange Systems
The material can be magnetically diluted by introducing a small fraction of manganese ions in place of cobalt ions.
Domains and Interfaces in Random Fields
The strong coupling among spin, charge, orbital, and lattice degrees of freedom is a key ingredient for the colossal magnetoresistive (CMR) properties of manganese oxides.
Coexistence of long-ranged charge and orbital order and spin-glass state in single-layered manganites with weak quenched disorder
Upon application of an electric field, E , the oxygen atoms (open circles) displace (open arrows) relative to manganese (solid circles) inducing a net magnetization through changes in the exchange coupling.
Superexchange-Driven Magnetoelectricity in Magnetic Vortices
Troyanchuk, Crystal structure and spiral magnetic ordering in BiFeO3 doped with manganese, Appl.
First Principles Studies of Multiferroic Materials
We model the evolution of manganese relative to iron in the progenitor system of the globular cluster Omega Centauri by means of a self-consistent chemical evolution model.
Manganese evolution in Omega Centauri: a clue to the cluster formation mechanisms?
Of particular interest are those elements whose yields depend on the metallicity of the parent stars; manganese (Mn) is one of them.
Manganese evolution in Omega Centauri: a clue to the cluster formation mechanisms?
For purpose of the present study we analyzed the frequency-domain response of two samples of the same x = 0.01 manganese (Mn) content labeled as sample 1 and sample 2, respectively.
Experimental Evidence of the Role of Compound Counting Processes in Random Walk Approaches to Fractional Dynamics
The change in values of this exponent, in the samples of the same manganese content and gallium concentration, may be associated with locally different surroundings of DX centers contributing to the effective relaxation response of the investigated sample.
Experimental Evidence of the Role of Compound Counting Processes in Random Walk Approaches to Fractional Dynamics
Petukhov, Self-Compensation in Manganese-Doped Ferromagnetic Semiconductors, Phys.
The Nature of the magnetism-promoting hole state in the prototype magnetic semiconductor GaAs: Mn
On the assumption that the model (14) adequately describes the manganese oxides, we may conclude that the observed result is explained by assuming ¯U /6t ≡ g/6tn ∼ 5, i.e., ¯U /W ∼ 2.5 with the band width W = 12t.
Spin Wave Instability of Itinerant Ferromagnet
During the salt phase, the manganese could not be removed by the reverse osmosis method, as that would have also removed the salt.
Electron Energy Spectra, Fluxes, and Day-Night Asymmetries of $^{8}$B Solar Neutrinos from the 391-Day Salt Phase SNO Data Set
Electronic phase separation and related inhomogeneity is ubiquitously seen in strongly-correlated systems. A typical example is found between ferromagnetic metal and antiferromagnetic insulator in CMR manganese oxides.
Electronic phase separation in the pyrochlore double-exchange model
Ferromagnetic transition in doped manganese oxides has revived interests since rediscovery of colossal magnetoresistance phenomena. [1, 2] Recent refinement of experimental technique and improvement of sample quality make it possible to discuss critical phenomena of this transition in detail.
Critical Exponents for the Ferromagnetism in Colossal Magnetoresistance Manganites
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