lithography

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n lithography the act of making a lithographic print
    • n lithography a method of planographic printing from a metal or stone surface
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • Lithography a printing process for reproducing images, using any flat surface, such as a metal plate, in a manner similar to lithography{1.
    • Lithography The art or process of putting designs or writing, with a greasy material, on stone, and of producing printed impressions therefrom. The process depends, in the main, upon the antipathy between grease and water, which prevents a printing ink containing oil from adhering to wetted parts of the stone not covered by the design. See Lithographic limestone, under Lithographic.
    • Lithography The process of producing patterns on semiconductor crystals by exposing photosensitive coatings on a matrix, such as silicon, to light patterns in the form desired for the circuit, and subsequently treating (e.g., chemically) the patterns thus formed in such a way as to create integrated semiconductor circuits with the desired properties. This is the principle method (1990's) to create the high-density integrated circuits used in the digital computers on which you are reading this.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n lithography The art of making a picture, design, or writing upon stone in such a manner that ink-impressions can be taken from the work, and of producing such impressions by a process analogous to ordinary printing. Lithography was invented by Aloys Senefelder of Munich, about 1796. A special kind of stone is used, called lithographic stone. (See lithographic.) The design may be put upon the stone by direct drawing, by transfer from paper or from another stone, by engraving, or by-transfer from a photograph. In the first process the stone is prepared by grinding to give it a grained or slightly roughened surface, on which the design is drawn with a lithographic crayon precisely as it is to appear in print, but reversed; or the surface is smoothed, and the design is made with pen or brush in lithographic ink. When the drawing is finished, the stone is etched with dilute nitric acid, and then flooded with a solution of gum arabic in water, or it is flooded with nitric-acid and gum-arabic solutions combined. The acid decomposes the soap of the crayon or ink, and leaves the marked surface of the stone in a chemical condition that fits it to absorb fatty inks. The gum-water, on the other hand, covers with an adherent film all those parts of the surface of the stone which have been left untouched by the crayon or ink. The stone is then passed on to the printer, who “washes out” the picture with turpentine, after which the image appears faintly defined in white. To print from it, an inking-roller is now passed over the stone. The wet gummed surface resists the ink and remains clean, while the design takes up the ink and readily gives it back to paper under pressure in the press. The second or autographic process is by transfer. The design, picture, map, or writing is made on prepared paper with the proper ink, dampened, laid face downward on a heated stone and pulled through the press, when the ink leaves the paper and adheres to the stone. The after-treatment is the same as in the first process. Transfers are also made from stone to stone in like manner, to save from wear the original drawing on the first stone. The third process is allied to copperplate engraving. A smooth stone is prepared with gum-water, its face is colored with lampblack or other pigment, and the picture is scratched through the gum with a steel needle. When it is finished the stone is oiled, and the oil is absorbed wherever the surface of the stone has been laid bare by the needle. The incised design is thus made fit to take up fatty inks, which are resisted by the gummed surface so long as it is kept damp. The fourth process is that of transferring a photograph to the stone, and is called photolithography (which see). These four processes are modified and combined in a great variety of ways, yet in all, with the exception of photolithography, the method is essentially that invented by Senefelder.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Lithography the art of writing or engraving on stone and printing therefrom
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
Cf. F. lithographie,
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
Gr. lithos, a stone, graphein, to write.

Usage

In literature:

Lithography, while a simpler and less expensive mode of making stamps than those previously described, is not often employed for the purpose.
"What Philately Teaches" by John N. Luff
It was the first specimen of lithography ever executed in Pittsburg.
"The Atlantic Monthly, Volume 20, No. 121, November, 1867" by Various
Of course swindlers and forgers are not admitted to trades like lithography, for reasons easy to understand.
"Criminal Man" by Gina Lombroso-Ferrero
Cromo-Lithography, by Messrs. Hahnhart & Son.
"Notes and Queries, Number 239, May 27, 1854" by Various
Lithography, zincography, and color painting.
"The Greater Republic" by Charles Morris
To which is prefixed a History of Lithography, from its origin to the present time.
"A Catalogue of Books in English Later than 1700 (Vol 3 of 3)" by Various
In this case lithography would be easier, quicker, and cheaper than photography.
"Finger Prints" by Francis Galton
With 188 Illustrations and a Table of Spectra in Chromo-lithography.
"A List of Kegan Paul, Trench and Co.'s Publications (1887)" by Anonymous
Lithography is a process which results from etching on stone.
"Peeps at Postage Stamps" by Stanley Currie Johnson
During his life he was able to do almost equally well at painting, lithography and sculpture.
"Paul Gauguin, His Life and Art" by John Gould Fletcher
He published many lesson books, in which he called in lithography to his aid.
"English Painters" by Harry John Wilmot-Buxton
The use of lithography both for Urdu and Hindi annually gives birth to hundreds of works.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 13, Slice 4" by Various
With 188 Illustrations and a Table of Spectra in Chromo-lithography.
"The Life of a Conspirator" by Thomas Longueville
Illustrations in Chromo-Lithography after Original Water-Colour Drawings.
"Principles of Decorative Design" by Christopher Dresser
With Eight Illustrations in chromo-lithography, by HELEN S. TATHAM.
"A Catalogue of Books for the Young" by Various
With Illustrations in Chromo-Lithography.
"The Life of Florence Nightingale vol. 2 of 2" by Edward Tyas Cook
With numerous Illustrations in chromo-lithography, and Map.
"A Thousand Miles in the Rob Roy Canoe on Rivers and Lakes of Europe" by John Macgregor
In Mahommedan countries lithography alone is employed.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 15, Slice 8" by Various
Thus my residence in London was not unimportant for lithography.
"The Invention of Lithography" by Alois Senefelder
It is printed by lithography on strips of paper six inches wide and two feet long.
"The Romance of Modern Invention" by Archibald Williams
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In poetry:

Then 'twas on the first day after Alois came home,
He began the printing of the Sprig of Moss on the stone;
And by taking the impressions of watch-cases he discovered, one day,
What is now called the art of Lithography.
"The Sprig of Moss" by William Topaz McGonagall
And when life's prospects may at times appear dreary to ye,
Remember Alois Senefelder, the discoverer of Lithography,
How God saved him from drowning himself in adversity,
And I hope ye all will learn what the Sprig of Moss teaches ye.
"The Sprig of Moss" by William Topaz McGonagall

In news:

Self assembly and lithography combine to create promising technique that could lead to 6 nm resolution.
Deep canyons can be etched into materials at the nanoscale with a new SIS-based lithography technique by Argonne National Laboratory scientists.
Seventy-three original prints by three masters of lithography and etching — Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, and Fernand Léger — are exhibited in the Glendale show.
A printing company that goes digital doesn't necessarily leave lithography behind.
Read Between the Lines – Linocuts and Lithography Friday October 12th – Urban Light Studios.
Moore's Law threatened by lithography woes.
LEUVEN, Belgium – Moore's Law, the engine of semiconductor innovation for decades, is losing steam due to delayed introduction of next-generation extreme ultraviolet lithography .
Ware made his comments after participating in a two-day meeting of the US lithography development working group, which is involved in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors.
Wound healing assay prepared by adhesive tape-based soft lithography.
He teaches courses in intaglio, lithography, relief, and mixed methods.
His practiced printmaking techniques include intaglio, lithography, relief, monotype, and mixed media.
Massachusetts micro component manufacturer utilizes its core technologies of photo lithography, electroforming and thin film processing to make a variety of components for this industry.
In this episode, we take a look at a new technology, "nanoimprint lithography" developed by Princeton University scientist Stephen Chou.
Lithography from Galerie Mourlot, New York.
DIGITAL AD TECHNICAL INFORMATION / SPECIFICATIONS Printing by web offset lithography SWOP standards are followed.
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In science:

This is however not as demanding as making all the internal connections (dot-to-dot connections) with lithography.
A Self Assembled Nanoelectronic Quantum Computer Based on the Rashba Effect in Quantum Dots
Weisskopf, “Ground-to-orbit transfer of the AXAF-I flux scale: In-situ contamination monitoring of x-ray telescopes,” in Multilayer and grazing incidence X-ray/EUV optics for astronomy and projection lithography, R. B.
Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO):Overview
The lower limit to the size of the structures one can make is usually determined by the size of the patterns one can make with lithography, which, in turn, is usually determined by the quality of the image formed during the exposure stage.
Quantum Phenomena in Low-Dimensional Systems
The Yablonovitch variant puts less demands on lithography, as only one gate must be fabricated per qubit, and in addition the spacing between the qubits can be much larger than in the original proposal (up to 200 nm).
Experimental Quantum Computation with Nuclear Spins in Liquid Solution
The bridges with abovementioned sizes and the superconducting bridges with F -islands of submicron size described in the last section of this article were formed using electron-beam lithography. A two step resistive junction obtained with a minimal transport current of 0.5 µA is shown in Fig. 2a.
Proximity Effect and Spontaneous Vortex Phase in Planar SF-Structures
To define the quantum dot, metallic gates are patterned on the surface of the wafer by means of electron-beam lithography.
Photon-assisted transport in semiconductor nanostructures
Electron lithography allows to pattern different types of superconducting structures with all their dimensions of the same order or smaller than the magnetic penetration depth of the bulk material[16, 17, 18].
Superconducting nanostructures fabricated with the STM
Manipulation of matter on the atomic scale will require new tools for lithography and metrology and radiation at X-ray wavelengths will be fundamental to the development of this area.
On X-Ray Waveguiding in Nanochannels: Channeling Formalism
Micrometer and sub-micrometer-spaced electrodes can now be fabricated thanks to the dimensions achievable by lithography.
Surface Conditioning Effect on Vacuum Microelectronics Components Fabricated by Deep Reactive Ion Etching
Even though a standard lithography was used on the first samples, a 100nm-apex was found, which theoretically helps to enhance the electrical field.
Surface Conditioning Effect on Vacuum Microelectronics Components Fabricated by Deep Reactive Ion Etching
The QPCs are formed by Cr/Au top gates, which are patterned on the Hall bar using e-beam lithography.
Quasiparticle Tunneling in the Fractional Quantum Hall State at \nu = 5/2
The sample is then spin-coated with a layer of PMMA, and the nanowire plus several of the interconnects are patterned by electron-beam lithography.
Nanowire atomchip traps for sub-micron atom-surface distances
Recently pickup loop sizes as small a s 0.6µm in diameter have been de fined using focussed ion beam lithography .
Probing the order parameter symmetry in the cuprate high temperature superconductors by SQUID microscopy
The samples investigated are Nb strips patterned by a standard UV photo-lithography technique on Nb films deposited on Si(100) substrates in a UHV dc diode magnetron sputtering system.
Quasiparticle scattering time in superconducting films: from dirty to clean limit
The accelerometer structures comprising the test mass, the support nano-tethers, and the zipper cavity are defined in a single electron-beam lithography step.
A microchip optomechanical accelerometer
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