• WordNet 3.6
    • n knapsack a bag carried by a strap on your back or shoulder
    • ***
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • n Knapsack A case of canvas, leather, nylon, or other sturdy fabric, fitted with straps, for carrying on the back the food, clothing, or other supplies for a soldier or a traveler; as, to hike up the mountain with lunch in a knapsack . "And each one fills his knapsack or his scrip
      With some rare thing that on the field is found."
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n knapsack A case or bag of leather or strong cloth for carrying a soldier's necessaries, closely strapped to the back between the shoulders; hence, any case or bag for similar use. Various forms of knapsacks are now used by tourists and others for carrying light personal luggage. Originally the military knapsack was meant for carrying food, but it has gradually become appropriated to a totally different purpose, as the transportation of clothes and the like, and food is carried in the haversack.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Knapsack nap′sak a provision-sack: a case for necessaries borne by soldiers and travellers.
    • ***


  • Napoleon Bonaparte
    “Every private in the French army carries a Field Marshall wand in his knapsack.”


Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
D. knapzak,; knappen, to eat + zak, a bag. See Knap (v. t.), and Sack
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
Dut. knappen, to crack, eat, zak, a sack.


In literature:

Each officer and man carried provisions for eight days in his knapsack.
"With Wolfe in Canada" by G. A. Henty
Grace wore a little knapsack fitted to her back with two cross straps.
"Grace Harlowe's Junior Year at High School" by Jessie Graham Flower
Gold, as being more portable, was bought at an immense loss with silver, which the knapsacks were incapable of holding.
"History of the Expedition to Russia" by Count Philip de Segur
I speak to you as a former officer: does your conscience assure you that your son is fit to carry a knapsack and be a foot-soldier?
"Georges Guynemer" by Henry Bordeaux
I quickly hugged a knapsack to my stomach in order to protect myself as best I could.
"The Story of the Great War, Volume III (of 12)"
He returned to Montreal, bearing along with him as trophies of war, a Fenian coat, knapsack and rifle.
"The Black-Sealed Letter" by Andrew Learmont Spedon
Knapsacks were abolished and haversacks of cloth made by patriotic women with their needles took their places.
"The Victim" by Thomas Dixon
Some of them escape helter-skelter, throwing down rifles and knapsacks.
"The New York Times Current History: the European War, February, 1915" by Various
I will carry musket, knapsack, and all.
"The Bastonnais" by John Lesperance
He laid his knapsack on the table, and began to describe all the wonderful things he had seen in the world.
"Household Stories by the Brothers Grimm" by Jacob Grimm and Wilhelm Grimm
He resigned his office and tramped with knapsack on back across the Alps.
"Little Journeys to the Homes of the Great - Volume 12" by Elbert Hubbard
There are, in addition to the field stations, "knapsack" stations, which are divided into sections so that four soldiers can carry an outfit.
"Kelly Miller's History of the World War for Human Rights" by Kelly Miller
The soldiers strapped on their knapsacks, struck their tents, and harnessed the horses.
"Diary of the Besieged Resident in Paris" by Henry Labouchère
But, on returning, what was my dismay to see neither rifle nor knapsack!
"In the Rocky Mountains" by W. H. G. Kingston
At the first sunlight the men were awakened, and all ate cold food which they carried in their knapsacks.
"The Young Trailers" by Joseph A. Altsheler
I've got a small knapsack that will hold all I want to carry.
"Frank and Fearless" by Horatio Alger Jr.
In time the knapsacks were supplanted by haversacks, which the women could make.
"The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government, Vol. 1 (of 2)" by Jefferson Davis
On his back, a soldier's knapsack, well buckled and perfectly new; in his hand, an enormous knotty stick.
"Standard Selections" by Various
Just been looking through my knapsack.
"Parkhurst Boys" by Talbot Baines Reed
It was not pleasant to have to carry our saddles in addition to the knapsacks we each of us had at our backs.
"Snow Shoes and Canoes" by William H. G. Kingston

In poetry:

When Shakespeare came to London
He met no shouting throngs;
He carried in his knapsack
A scroll of quiet songs.
"Shakespeare's Kingdom" by Alfred Noyes
A soldier with his knapsack on
Came travelling o'er the down,
The sun was strong and he was tired,
And of the old man he enquired
How far to Bristol town.
"The Cross Roads" by Robert Southey
Oh, think of Tommy Atkins when from home far away,
Lying on the battlefield, earth's cold clay;
And a stone or his knapsack pillowing his head,
And his comrades lying near by him wounded and dead.
"Lines in Praise of Tommy Atkins" by William Topaz McGonagall
By a grove-encircled lake in the wild and prairied West,
As the sun was sinking down one summer day,
I laid my knapsack down and my weary limbs to rest,
And resolved to build a cottage-home and stay.
"The Pioneer" by Hanford Lennox Gordon
Fifteen years have rolled away since I laid my knapsack down,
And my prairie claim is now one field of grain;
And yonder down the lake loom the steeples of a town,
And my flocks are feeding out upon the plain.
"The Pioneer" by Hanford Lennox Gordon
O my heart, my heart is sick awishing and awaiting:
The lad took up his knapsack, he went, he went his way;
And I looked on for his coming, as a prisoner through the grating
Looks and longs and longs and wishes for its opening day.
"Requiescat In Pace" by Jean Ingelow

In news:

Notable deaths in politics 2012 A to M. Google's street view knapsack.
Freddie Gibbs used to rob trains, and not the arcane Jesse James, "your money in the knapsack" stickup trick.
We develop an efficient incremental version of an existing cost-based filtering algorithm for the knapsack constraint.
I thought before I began looking into this that they'd walked to here and there in Germany with their knapsacks and their notebooks and talking to peasants and saying tell me a story.
Feeling a yearning for the glory days of the late 90s and early 2000s where bands like At the Drive In, knapsack, and I Hate Myself were at their peak.
Get a load off Dad's back by turning one of his button-downs into a sweet knapsack for his little girl.
Arms, heads, blankets, guns and knapsacks were thrown and tossed into the clear air.
Born in May, in a damp city (hence the motif: water), soon to be surrounded by an army whose officers kept Hölderlin in their knapsacks, but alas, they had no time for reading.

In science:

This family of problems tends to a generalization of the classical maximum coverage problem as p goes to 0, and to a trivial instance of the knapsack problem as p goes to 1.
Approximation of a Maximum-Submodular-Coverage problem involving spectral functions, with application to Experimental Design
On the other hand, the limit of Problem (Pp ) as p → 1 is a knapsack problem (in fact, it is the trivial instance in which the ith item has weight 1 and utility ui = trace Mi ).
Approximation of a Maximum-Submodular-Coverage problem involving spectral functions, with application to Experimental Design
Note that Problem (P1 ) is nothing but a knapsack problem, for which it is well known that the greedy algorithm is optimal if each available item has the same weight.
Approximation of a Maximum-Submodular-Coverage problem involving spectral functions, with application to Experimental Design
An algorithm for nonlinear knapsack problems.
Approximation of a Maximum-Submodular-Coverage problem involving spectral functions, with application to Experimental Design
Sviridenko. A note on maximizing a submodular set function sub ject to a knapsack constraint.
Approximation of a Maximum-Submodular-Coverage problem involving spectral functions, with application to Experimental Design
However, it is not difficult to see that the Diophantine inequality equation is a generalization of the knapsack problem. So, there is unlikely an efficient algorithm for general DIE unless P=NP.
Attack on Fully Homomorphic Encryption over the Integers
Alper Atamt¨urk and Kiavash Kianfar. n-step mingling inequalities: facets for mixed integer knapsack sets.
Equivariant Perturbation in Gomory and Johnson's Infinite Group Problem
Knapsack-type cryptosystems and algebraic coding theory.
On the decoding of quasi-BCH codes
We have an ˜O(2n/3 ) upper bound given by essentially the same quantum algorithm that works for Knapsack.
The Quantum Query Complexity of 0-1 Knapsack and Associated Claw Problems
Generalized compact knapsacks, cyclic lattices, and efficient one-way functions from worst-case complexity assumptions.
New Lattice Based Cryptographic Constructions
On the cryptocomplexity of knapsack systems.
Average-Case Complexity
Second, because of straightforward reductions from knapsack problems, they are NP-hard to compute even for otherwise easy problems.
Approximating Multi-Criteria Max-TSP
A refined approximation The (multiservice) reduced load or knapsack approximation (Dziong and Roberts, 1987, see also Ross, 1995) is a more refined approximation than that defined above.
Loss networks
Acceptance probabilities for controlled loss networks are usually estimated using a generalised version of the reduced load or knapsack approximation of Section 2.4.
Loss networks
The rise and fall of knapsack cryptosystems.
On the Algorithmic Complexity of the Mastermind Game with Black-Peg Results