irradiation

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n irradiation (medicine) the treatment of disease (especially cancer) by exposure to a radioactive substance
    • n irradiation (Pavolvian conditioning) the elicitation of a conditioned response by stimulation similar but not identical to the original stimulus
    • n irradiation the apparent enlargement of a bright object when viewed against a dark background
    • n irradiation (physiology) the spread of sensory neural impulses in the cortex
    • n irradiation a column of light (as from a beacon)
    • n irradiation the condition of being exposed to radiation
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Colored diamonds are caused by impurities such as nitrogen (yellow), boron (blue). With red diamonds being due to deformities in the structure of the stone, and green ones being the result of irradiation.
    • irradiation Act of irradiating, or state of being irradiated; as, irradiation of foods with X-rays can preserve their freshness by killing the bacteria that cause spoilage .
    • irradiation Fig.: Mental light or illumination.
    • irradiation Illumination; irradiance; brilliancy.
    • irradiation (Opt) The apparent enlargement of a bright object seen upon a dark ground, due to the fact that the portions of the retina around the image are stimulated by the intense light; as when a dark spot on a white ground appears smaller, or a white spot on a dark ground larger, than it really is, esp. when a little out of focus.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n irradiation The act of irradiating or emitting beams of light; illumination; brightness emitted; enlightenment.
    • n irradiation In physics, the phenomenon of the apparent enlargement of an object strongly illuminated, when seen against a dark ground. It was explained by Plateau as due to the extension of the impression upon the nerves of the retina beyond the outlines of the image; Helmholtz, however, has ascribed it to the want of perfect accommodation in the eye, leading to the formation of diffusion images about the proper image of a bright object, so that it encroaches upon the dark space about it, and hence appears larger than it really is. Irradiation increases with the brightness of the object, diminishes as the illumination of the object and that of the field of view approach equality, and vanishes when they become equal.
    • n irradiation In neurology, the diffusion of a nervous impulse to parts outside the normal path of conduction.
    • n irradiation In therapeutics, subjection to the influence of X-rays or other form of radioactivity.
    • n irradiation In anatomy, the disposition of fibrous or other structures in stellate form.
    • n irradiation In chem., exposure to radiant light: as, some substances are said to phosphoresce by irradiation.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Irradiation act of irradiating or emitting beams of light: that which is irradiated: brightness: intellectual light
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
Cf. F. irradiation,

Usage

In literature:

Her irradiation overflowed the box, she sat in the midst of it, immovable, in the spreading majesty of an idol.
"The Man Who Laughs" by Victor Hugo
A single flash of new thrilling light irradiates a continent of thought.
"Essays Æsthetical" by George Calvert
While he preached, the eternal world seemed irradiant about him.
"Sketches of the Covenanters" by J. C. McFeeters
Moses veiled the face that shone with the irradiation of Deity.
"Expositions of Holy Scripture: Romans Corinthians (To II Corinthians, Chap. V)" by Alexander Maclaren
Suddenly a blaze of light irradiated the apartment.
"Traditions of Lancashire, Volume 1 (of 2)" by John Roby
Whatever is focused by our attention wins emphasis and irradiates meaning over the course of events.
"The Photoplay" by Hugo Münsterberg
There was light within him but it did not irradiate him.
"A Cathedral Singer" by James Lane Allen
The subsequent fame of Lincoln has irradiated every phase of his early career.
"Stephen A. Douglas" by Allen Johnson
He cast a glance through the front window, and his face became irradiated.
"Humorous Masterpieces from American Literature" by Various
The light which irradiated the image of Patty transfigured the events and circumstances amid which he moved.
"One Man in His Time" by Ellen Glasgow
It was because a spotless and noble character irradiated all he wrote and said and did.
"T. De Witt Talmage" by T. De Witt Talmage
The light of an infinite joy irradiated her face.
"Ishmael" by Mrs. E. D. E. N. Southworth
As its unearthly glow irradiated the world around him, reversing its light and shade, the visions of the nunnery recurred.
"The Age of Erasmus" by P. S. Allen
A glorious September sun was irradiating the walls of his bedroom.
"Adèle Dubois" by Mrs. William T. Savage
The term 'irradiation' is, however, too specific a term to describe a process that works in these two opposite directions.
"Harvard Psychological Studies, Volume 1" by Various
I felt him come toward me by the sharp irradiation of offensiveness.
"A Woman of Genius" by Mary Austin
A smile irradiated her face, while a slight, almost imperceptible, movement pulsed through her body.
"The Siege of Mafeking (1900)" by J. Angus Hamilton
Toward the end a smile of singular sweetness irradiated his rough face, made delicate by the waxy color of death.
"The Incendiary" by W. A. (William Augustine) Leahy
The clergyman learnt something fresh, some sudden illuminating point of view, some irradiating fact, at every moment.
"When It Was Dark" by Guy Thorne
His whole face was irradiated with joy, and the sword in his right hand shone like a tall flame.
"The Air Pirate" by Cyril Arthur Edward Ranger Gull
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In poetry:

Then over the humble place
Where the Royal Babe was laid,
Did the "Star of the East," blest Bethlehem's star,
Irradiate no more to fade.
"The Christ Child" by Mary Weston Fordham
Shall Godhead dream a transient thing?
Strives He for that which now He lacks?
Shall Law's dominion melt as wax
As touch of Hope's irradiant wing?
"The Testimony of the Suns" by George Sterling
Nay, but we MUST! No tiny bud
But thrills with rapture at the flood
Of fresh young life which stirs to-day.
The same wild thrill irradiates our blood;
Why hint of "May"?
"May" by Susan Coolidge
Now sudden her face like an angel's appears,
Irradiant beams shot around,
Bright stars seem'd descending in shoals from the spheres,
And spangled with di'monds the ground.
"Edmund And Anna" by Charlotte Dacre
But all my anger, all my pain and woe,
Are vain to daunt her gladness; all the while
She goes rejoicing, and I do not know,
Catching the soft irradiance of her smile,
If I am most her lover or her foe.
"Gulf-Stream" by Susan Coolidge
So soon he fell, the world will never know
What possibilities within him lay,
What hopes irradiated his young life,
With high ambition and with ardor rife;
But ah! the speedy summons came, and so
He passed away.
"The Student Gone" by Hattie Howard

In news:

Pathologic evaluation of primary laryngeal anterior commissure carcinoma both in patients who have undergone open surgery as initial treatment and in those who have undergone salvage surgery after irradiation failure.
The kinetics of thymine dimer excision in ultraviolet-irradi.
FOR THE TIME BEING I AM IGNORING THE alien pods, the racing cars, the intergalactic battles and the irradiated mutants.
The suggested solutions involved irradiating the plutonium into the form of a mixed plutonium oxide, or MOX, in a nuclear reactor.
Unpaired electrons irradiated with microwave radiation at a fixed frequency will undergo resonant transitions between the spin-up and spindown state at a characteristic magnetic field, as shown in Figure 1.
Electron -Beam Irradiation Reduces Produce Risk.
DNA-damaged) fibroblasts that were capable of expressing and secreting WNT16B, or conditioned medium from irradiated fibroblasts that expressed a WNT16B-inhibiting shRNA.
This paper examines the process of gamma irradiation of plastic materials used as part of single-use disposable systems in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology sectors, with a focus on validation requirements.
Natural sun-purpled glass (also known as sun-colored amethyst or SCA) and irradiated glass are similar, but sun-purpled glass changes color gradually over a long period of time and is fairly light in color, sometimes just a strong tint.
New Practice for Characterizing Charged-Particle Irradiations of Materials in Terms of Non-Ionizing Energy Loss (NIEL).
1.Scope 1.1This practice describes a standard procedure for characterizing charged-particle irradiations of materials in terms of non-ionizing energy loss.
Because a smaller portion of the breast is irradiated , treatment courses can often be abbreviated, and techniques such as conformal external beam, catheter- or balloon-based brachytherapy, and intra-operative radiation have been developed.
Breast cancer treatment were more likely to have an infection or breast pain than those who were treated with whole-breast irradiation , in a new study.
Action was taken after cats died or got sick from eating irradiated dry food.
The ban comes after a number of cats died or became ill after eating irradiated cat food manufactured by the Canadian company, Champion Petfoods Ltd.
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In science:

In (a) it is shown the seven irradiance measurements performed to determine our SLM Jones matrix coefficients. i1n corresponds to an optical configuration where the first and the second polarizers were aligned at the horizontal direction (P1 = P2 = H ).
Manipulating spatial qudit states with programmable optical devices
Kovetz et al. (1988) showed that irradiated companions of nova WDs expand in size enough to drive mass transfer that is enhanced by two orders of magnitude over a century.
The Nova Shell and Evolution of the Recurrent Nova T Pyxidis
This idea requires that there must be some sort of time constant of decades for the response of the accretion rate to the stimulus of the irradiation.
The Nova Shell and Evolution of the Recurrent Nova T Pyxidis
Just before the ‘1866’ eruption, when the companion star was in its normal state with no irradiation, the ˙M = 4 × 10−11 M⊙ accretion rate was that associated with the loss of gravitational radiation, yr−1 .
The Nova Shell and Evolution of the Recurrent Nova T Pyxidis
Irradiance at Fres nel Planes of a Phase Grating.
Augmenting Light Field to model Wave Optics effects
This capability is obtained by thermally coupling thin Ge active layers to the main energy absorber of the bolometer, and is demonstrated by irradiating the detectors with α particles.
Surface-sensitive macrobolometers for the identification of external charged particles
Detector A was irradiated by the source described above.
Surface-sensitive macrobolometers for the identification of external charged particles
Alloying anions, x-ray irradiation and cooling rate controlled anion reorientation introduce non-magnetic randomness into the system while leaving the backbone structure and the unit cell of the organic superconductors to a large extent unchanged.
Critical disorder effects in Josephson-coupled quasi-one-dimensional superconductors
Armed only with measurements of the planet mass (Mp = 6.55 ± 0.98 M⊕), radius (Rp = 2.678 ± 0.13 R⊕ ), and stellar irradiation level, our main conclusion is that we cannot infer a unique composition. A diverse range of planet interiors fits the measured planet properties.
Three Possible Origins for the Gas Layer on GJ 1214b
Sublimation of ices (for example, due to the release of gravitational energy during initial planet formation, the increased stellar irradiation following inward planetary migration, or late delivery of ices by comets) would produce H2O, CO, CO2 , CH4 , and NH3 vapor.
Three Possible Origins for the Gas Layer on GJ 1214b
Vaporization of rocky material can contribute to atmospheres surrounding highly irradiated super Earths like CoRoT-7b (Schaefer & Fegley 2009a), but GJ 1214b is not hot enough for this process to occur.
Three Possible Origins for the Gas Layer on GJ 1214b
It is important to note that our model thermal profile assumes GJ 1214b is in radiative equilibrium with the incident stellar irradiation it receives at its current orbital location.
Three Possible Origins for the Gas Layer on GJ 1214b
The irradiation process was performed without any mask.
Non-reciprocal second harmonic generation in ferroelectric photonic structures
We have developed a detailed model for the effect of charge traps based on data from irradiated CCDs, and applied it to simulated galaxies.
The effects of charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) on galaxy shape measurements
In §4 we validate that code by showing that it can reproduce the effects of CTE degradation as measured on real, irradiated LBNL CCDs.
The effects of charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) on galaxy shape measurements
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