inference

Definitions

  • One of the intriguing mysteries of Jamestown is how the left leg and left half of a human pelvis came to be thrown with other refuse into a well behind the row house. The logical inference is that a rebel or criminal had been hanged, drawn, and quartered
    One of the intriguing mysteries of Jamestown is how the left leg and left half of a human pelvis came to be thrown with other refuse into a well behind the row house. The logical inference is that a rebel or criminal had been hanged, drawn, and quartered
  • WordNet 3.6
    • n inference the reasoning involved in drawing a conclusion or making a logical judgment on the basis of circumstantial evidence and prior conclusions rather than on the basis of direct observation
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • Inference That which inferred; a truth or proposition drawn from another which is admitted or supposed to be true; a conclusion; a deduction. "These inferences , or conclusions, are the effects of reasoning, and the three propositions, taken all together, are called syllogism, or argument."
    • Inference The act or process of inferring by deduction or induction. "Though it may chance to be right in the conclusions, it is yet unjust and mistaken in the method of inference ."
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n inference The formation of a belief or opinion, not as directly observed, but as constrained by observations made of other matters or by beliefs already adopted; the system of propositions or judgments connected together by such an act in a syllogism—namely, the premises, or the judgment or judgments which act as causes, and the conclusion, or the judgment which results as an effect; also, the belief so produced. The act of inference consists psychologically in constructing in the imagination a sort of diagram or skeleton image of the essentials of the state of things represented in the premises, in which, by mental manipulation and contemplation, relations that had not been noticed in constructing it are discovered. In this respect inference is analogous to experiment, where, in place of a diagram, a simplified state of things is used, and where the manipulation is real instead of mental. Unconscious inference is the determination of a cognition by previous cognitions without consciousness or voluntary control. The lowest kind of conscious inference is where a proposition is recognized as inferred, but without distinct apprehension of the premises from which it has been inferred. The next lowest is the simple consequence, where a belief is recognized as caused by another belief, according to some rule or psychical force, but where the nature of this rule or leading principle is not recognized, and it is in truth some observed fact embodied in a habit of inference. Such, for example, is the celebrated inference of Descartes, Cogito, ergo sum (‘I think, therefore I exist’). Higher forms of inference are the direct syllogism (see syllogism); apagogic inference, or the reductio ad absurdum, which involves the principle of contradiction: dilemmatic inference, which involves the principle of excluded middle; simple inferences turning upon relations; inferences of transposed quantity (see below); and the Fermatian inference (see Fermatian). Scientific inferences are either inductive or hypothetic. See induction, 5, and analogy, 3.
    • n inference Reasoning from effect to cause; reasoning from signs; conjecture from premises or criteria; hypothesis.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Inference that which is inferred or deduced: the act of drawing a conclusion from premises, conclusion, consequence
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Quotations

  • Henry David Thoreau
    Henry%20David%20Thoreau
    “We do not learn by inference and deduction and the application of mathematics to philosophy, but by direct intercourse and sympathy.”
  • Georg C. Lichtenberg
    Georg%20C.%20Lichtenberg
    “That man is the noblest creature may also be inferred from the fact that no other creature has yet contested this claim.”
  • Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
    Sir%20Arthur%20Conan%20Doyle
    “From a drop of water a logician could infer the possibility of an Atlantic or a Niagara without having seen or heard of one or the other.”
  • Harry Tennant
    Harry Tennant
    “Don't remember what you can infer.”
  • Georg C. Lichtenberg
    Georg%20C.%20Lichtenberg
    “Much can be inferred about a man from his mistress: in her one beholds his weaknesses and his dreams.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
From Infer
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
Fr.,—L. inferrein, into, ferre, to bring.

Usage

In literature:

With the inferences which men have drawn about that reality, and the ideas those inferences have led to, the case is different.
"The Idea of God in Early Religions" by F. B. Jevons
At least so he inferred.
"Black Oxen" by Gertrude Franklin Horn Atherton
The Tory inferred that the church should be supported.
"The English Utilitarians, Volume II (of 3)" by Leslie Stephen
Orme inferred that he was bound for the North Clark Street car line.
"The Girl and The Bill" by Bannister Merwin
You may infer that partridges have been banished from our bill of fare.
"The Letters of Charles Dickens" by Charles Dickens
You inferred behind her a long, half-savage ancestry of the open air.
"The Creators" by May Sinclair
It is a mere inference.
"The Lost Art of Reading" by Gerald Stanley Lee
If it is known, then, with which of the electricities bodies are united, it can be inferred which will, and which will not, combine together?
"Conversations on Chemistry, V. 1-2" by Jane Marcet
I drew my inferences from Mallinson's face, for when he turned round and strolled back to his wicket, he was wearing a broad smile.
"The Wonder" by J. D. Beresford
The inference from these various facts is irresistible.
"The Story of the Heavens" by Robert Stawell Ball
Cattle never ran this way by themselves; therefore the obvious inference was that they were driven.
"The Free Range" by Francis William Sullivan
It may be inferred, therefore, that ordinary men got along fairly well with their masters in the ordinary course.
"Change in the Village" by (AKA George Bourne) George Sturt
And inferences of the latter kind are in fact of the most various degrees of certainty.
"Rationalism" by John Mackinnon Robertson
The inference of Mr. Croker from the variations must be reversed.
"The Works of Alexander Pope, Volume 1" by Alexander Pope
I shed the inference for its intrinsic worth, merely.
"The Destroying Angel" by Louis Joseph Vance
It is, at least, too soon to infer, on mere negative evidence, that the mammalia were foreign to this fauna.
"A Manual of Elementary Geology" by Charles Lyell
If it is necessary to deceive him the end must be gained by leading him to it by inference.
"The Secret of the League" by Ernest Bramah
He drew his inferences from the circumstances related to him, and spoke in accordance with them.
"Mrs. Halliburton's Troubles" by Mrs. Henry Wood
Inferences and remarks 65 114.
"The English Language" by Robert Gordon Latham
But need we infer because abstract terms are singular that therefore they have no intension and are mere meaningless marks?
"International Congress of Arts and Science, Volume I" by Various
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In poetry:

CHRYSANTHUS.
From you
I infer all good: that true
Faith I hope which you advise.
"The Purgatory Of St. Patrick - Act II" by Denis Florence MacCarthy
Ther thei beryed hem both
In nouther mosse nor lynge,
And Litulle Johne and Muche infere
Bare the letturs to oure kyng.
"Robin Hood And The Monk" by Andrew Lang
It was your way, my dear,
To be gone without a word
When callers, friends, or kin
Had left, and I hastened in
To rejoin you, as I inferred.
"Without Ceremony" by Thomas Hardy
"As well. Just so. Not worse, not better. No,
Next morning found the Nation still divided;
Since all were slain, the inference is plain
They left the point they fought for undecided."
"How To Not Settle It" by Oliver Wendell Holmes
We've told our tale; we've told it true;
Except an inference or two.
Much happiness the man betides
Who knows he's well, and there abides.
If he attempts to climb a wall,
His foot may slip, and cause a fall.
"The Jealous Head" by William Hutton
TANS. I do not intend to infer that; for I will hold of highest wisdom
him who could really say at one time the opposite of what he says at
another--never was I less gay than now; or, never was I less sad than at
present.
"The Heroic Enthusiasts - Part The First =Second Dialogue.=" by Giordano Bruno

In news:

In this paper, we present a scheme based on feature mining and neuro-fuzzy inference system for detecting LSB matching steganography in grayscale images, which is a very challenging problem in steganalysis.
Semantic inference is an important component in many natural language understanding applications.
Classical approaches to semantic inference rely on complex logical representations.
This paper develops a statistical inference approach, Bayesian Tensor Inference, for style transformation between photo images and sketch images of human faces.
The inference is that those who do not share this "Christian mindset" are "Value-less" voters, people lacking a proper sense of morality and ethics, adhering to.
Apple, Samsung narrowly escape adverse inference instruction.
This paper explores the problem of content-based rating inference from online opinion-based texts, which often expresses differing opinions on multiple aspects .
Can a sincere Christian safely infer that both are acceptable.
Inferring local ecological processes amid species pool influences p600.
Seeing that an AP reporter is too professional to submit a story which was not based on confirmed sources (ostensibly the Obama campaign in this case), the inference s...
First, as part of the submission process, authors will complete a questionnaire that describes, in detail, the study's rationale, method , results and interpretation, helping to accurately assess the fit between inferences and methods.
Retrodict ret-ruh-DIKT (verb) To utilize present information or ideas to infer or explain (a past event or state of affairs) - www.merriam-webster.com.
Chemical analyses and spectral images of Martian boulders allow inferences about their origins.
Conservative intelligentsia infer if FDR did nothing during the Great Depression the economy would have rebounded at a fast pace.
Keith Richards ' essence as an artist, like dark matter elsewhere in the universe, is something we comprehend only by inference and comparison.
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In science:

In a finite-size system, the degree of the wave functions’ localization (or a lack thereof ) can be inferred from the set of inverse participation ratios R |Ψ(~r)|2nd~r L2(R |Ψ(~r ′ )|2d~r ′ )n i .
Planar Dirac fermions in long-range-correlated random vector potential
Also the emission of the supernova, inferred from the iron lines, is in this case weaker then the autentic GRB energy flux. 2.
Observational tests of the Electro-Magnetic Black Hole Theory in Gamma-Ray Bursts
Maxwellian with temperature T = 2hEc i/N , and that the distribution of angles has a Gibbsian shape ρ(θ) ∝ e−V (θ)/T , with the potential inferred from the equations of motion.
Out-of-equilibrium states as statistical equilibria of an effective dynamics
Hence, semantic evaluation or type inference amounts to a proof starting from the axioms in a Natural semantics speci fication.
Typed Generic Traversal With Term Rewriting Strategies
Let us read some inference rules for convenience.
Typed Generic Traversal With Term Rewriting Strategies
As for, 2(s), 3 (s), the property can be inferred by inspection of the type position in the corresponding typing rules.
Typed Generic Traversal With Term Rewriting Strategies
The first entry is the spectral type inferred from the region bluewards of Hβ , the second entry is the spectral type inferred from the region around Hα.
Evidence for high accretion-rates in Weak-Line T Tauri stars?
The bit error rate δ is inferred directly from the verification test in the BB84 protocol; the phase error rate δp is also inferred, but by a less direct argument.
Phase randomization improves the security of quantum key distribution
Since there are but finitely many rules of inference, define such a logicsystem as a finite logic-system and the set of rules RI as the finite rules of inference.
General Logic-Systems and Consequence Operators
For LN , let S f N be the set of all finite rules of inference as defined on LN and SN the set of all general rules of inference defined on LN .
General Logic-Systems and Consequence Operators
So perhaps the task of a quantum gravity theory is to find a theory in which we have probabilistic inference and background independent inference in the same theory.
Relationalism vs. Bayesianism
Typically, the best model is adopted and used for further inference such as permitted parameter ranges, though the statistics literature has also seen increasing interest in multi-model inference combining a number of adequate models (e.g.
Information criteria for astrophysical model selection
In addition to the slow recombination rate, there are some other possible explanations for differences between the cosmic-ray ionization rate inferred from H+ 3 and those inferred from OH and HD.
H3+ in Diffuse Interstellar Clouds: a Tracer for the Cosmic-Ray Ionization Rate
The randomization process can serve as a basis of inference and is an alternative to relying on a random sample as the basis of inference.
Multi-center clinical trials: Randomization and ancillary statistics
And there is therefore the possibility that specification of events from 2 could allow one to infer something about X from which one could in turn infer more about goings-on in 1 than one could have inferred originally from just the full specification of beables in 3∗ .
Local Causality and Completeness: Bell vs. Jarrett
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