hydrolysis

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n hydrolysis a chemical reaction in which water reacts with a compound to produce other compounds; involves the splitting of a bond and the addition of the hydrogen cation and the hydroxide anion from the water
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • n Hydrolysis (Chem) A chemical process causing the splitting of a chemical bond by the addition of the elements of water. Where the bond which is split is not part of a ring structure, this process causes formation of two compounds from one compound plus water, as in the hydrolysis of the ester bonds of fats during saponification .
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n hydrolysis A kind of chemical decomposition by which a compound is broken up and resolved into other compounds by taking up the elements of water. Thus, by hydrolysis cane-sugar takes up a molecule of water and is resolved into one molecule of dextrose and one of levulose.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Hydrolysis hī-drol′i-sis a kind of chemical decomposition by which a compound is resolved into other compounds by taking up the elements of water
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
Hydro-, 1 + -lysis,
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
Gr. hydōr, water, lysislyein, to loose.

Usage

In literature:

Why, there was my theory of the hydrolysis of casein by trypsin, which Professor Walters had been carrying out in his laboratory.
"The Jacket (The Star-Rover)" by Jack London
As the process of hydrolysis proceeds, the amyloins become gradually poorer in amylin and relatively richer in maltose-groups.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 4, Part 3" by Various
Similar basic salts are formed by the hydrolysis of antimony salts.
"An Elementary Study of Chemistry" by William McPherson
Analysis of them shows that these salts undergo hydrolysis, and lose half their sulphuric acid.
"The Dyeing of Cotton Fabrics" by Franklin Beech
This group is closely related to chitin, yielding glucosamin and acetic acid as products of ultimate hydrolysis.
"Researches on Cellulose" by C. F. Cross
Hydrolysis: the chemical decomposition of a compound by water, causing formation of a new compound.
"Explanation of Terms Used in Entomology" by John. B. Smith
Hydrolysis by strong alkalis gives stearo-cutic acid, C28H48O4, and oleo-cutic acid, C14H20O4 (Fremy).
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 5" by Various
Upon hydrolysis starch gives first a mixture of dextrin and maltose, then glucose alone as an end-product.
"Dietetics for Nurses" by Fairfax T. Proudfit
Disaccharides of Type 1 may be obtained by the hydrolysis of other, more complex, carbohydrates.
"The Chemistry of Plant Life" by Roscoe Wilfred Thatcher
The hydrolysis of fats and oils is accelerated when they are allowed to remain for some time in the presence of organic non-fats.
"Soap-Making Manual" by E. G. Thomssen
An actual destruction, probably an hydrolysis of the luciferin molecule, occurred.
"The Nature of Animal Light" by E. Newton Harvey
This indicated probably the hydrolysis of an unstable lead compound.
"Some Constituents of the Poison Ivy Plant: (Rhus Toxicodendron)" by William Anderson Syme
Hydrolysis of hydrocyanic acid by means of hydrochloric acid yields formic acid.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 10, Slice 6" by Various
The degree of hydrolysis is also largely affected by the extent to which the solution has been "made basic" by the addition of alkalies.
"Animal Proteins" by Hugh Garner Bennett
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In news:

In cooperation with Andritz equipment, Cobalt tested its dilute acid hydrolysis pretreatment process.
Thermal Hydrolysis Comes to America: DC Water's Digestion Project.
Using thermal hydrolysis as a way to improve wastewater solids digestion is receiving interest from various organizations across the profession.
AEROSIL is an amorphous silica produced through the flame-hydrolysis method, which, through its structure of aggregated particles, reduces flow properties.
It's called alkaline hydrolysis and the province is the first in Canada to give it a try.
In both cases degradation begins with a chemical process (oxidation or hydrolysis), followed by a biological process.
Blue Plains's new method of processing solid waste, called thermal hydrolysis, will kill disease-causing bacteria and viruses the same way pasteurization kills pathogens in milk.
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In science:

Furthermore the system must be able to generate motion and active displacements. A prototype system for motion generation in cells are molecular motors which are enzymes that are driven by a chemical reaction (usually the hydrolysis of ATP) and which are able to generate motion and mechanical work.
Mechanical oscillations at the cellular scale
Every increase in x by a(= 6.8˚A) involves the hydrolysis of one ATP molecule.
A simple model for the kinetics of packaging of DNA in to a capsid against an external force
This hydrolysis is coupled mechanically to the movement of the DNA, through the ATPase.
A simple model for the kinetics of packaging of DNA in to a capsid against an external force
The packaging of a length a corresponds to going from A to B (or B to C) and involves the hydrolysis of one ATP molecule.
A simple model for the kinetics of packaging of DNA in to a capsid against an external force
Amino acids or amino acid precursors, molecules that provide amino acids after acid hydrolysis, are thought to exist in space .
Recent Progress in Chirality Research Using Circularly Polarized Light
The queueing discipline of Server 2, “last come, first served,” corresponds for microtubules to what is called a vectorial model for hydrolysis.
Khintchine-Pollaczek formula for random walks whose steps have one geometric tail
We have b < 1 if and only if β + γ < α, i.e., in the language of microtubules, if the average time for hydrolysis and dissociation of a monomer is less than the average time between the arrival of ATP(GTP)bound monomers.
Khintchine-Pollaczek formula for random walks whose steps have one geometric tail
The idea is that the chaperon protein binds to the misfolded protein (by aggregating to their hydrophobic patches), and transfers high amounts of energy to the misfolded protein (through ATP hydrolysis).
Protein folding and heteropolymers
Ethyl (2-13C)bromoacetate (Cambridge Isotopes) was converted to ethyl 2-fluoroacetate by heating with AgF followed by hydrolysis to sodium fluoroacet ate using NaOH in MeOH.
Experimental Quantum Computation with Nuclear Spins in Liquid Solution
Cellulose is an extraordinarily stable polysaccharide due to its structure: insoluble, relatively resistant to acid and base hydrolysis, and inaccessible to all hydrolytic enzymes except those from a few biological sources.
A review of wildland fire spread modelling, 1990-present, 1: Physical and quasi-physical models
The free energy released by each event of the phosphate ester hydrolysis, that elongates the polynucleotide by one monomer, serves as the input energy for driving the mechanical movements of the corresponding polymerase by one step on its track.
Template-directed biopolymerization: tape-copying Turing machines
Moreover, one of the steps of this cycle needs the assistance of specifically prepared molecular assembly whose preparation also involves hydrolysis of a molecule of ATP.
Template-directed biopolymerization: tape-copying Turing machines
The free energy released by the hydrolysis of two GTP molecules are utilized, respectively, in selecting the correct aa-tRNA and the release of the deacylated tRNA into the surrounding aqueous medium.
Template-directed biopolymerization: tape-copying Turing machines
However, once a cognate tRNA is identified, the smaller subunit sends a “green signal” (by a molecular mechanism that remains unclear), the EF-Tu separates out by a process driven by GTP hydrolysis thereby clearing the way for the peptide bond formation.
Template-directed biopolymerization: tape-copying Turing machines
Thus, the hydrolysis of the first GTP molecule is exploited for the selection of the correct aminoacyl-tRNA at the A site whereas that of the second GTP molecule is utilized to release of the deacylated tRNA molecule from the E site.
Template-directed biopolymerization: tape-copying Turing machines
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