The data were imported into AIPS (Greisen 1988), amplitude calibrated (with the measured or expected system temperature and, if needed, the autocorrelation normalised) then fringe ﬁtted.
Conclusions from the image analysis of the VSOP Survey
One of the most interesting features related to the physics of UHECRs is the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cut off [93, 94], a suppression of the high-energy tail of the UHECR spectrum arising from interactions with CMB photons, according to pγ → ∆+ → pπ0 (nπ+ ).
Lorentz Violation: Motivation and new constraints
Greisen 2009, private communication), which is suﬃcient for most of the current arrays but is not enough for a full simulation of, for example, the LOFAR array at the level of individual dipole elements.
SKA HI end2end simulation
Indeed, the most energetic cosmic rays cannot propagate very far (i.e. not much more than ∼ 100 Mpc), without loosing most of their energy by interactions with photons from the Cosmic Microwave Background (the so-called GZK effect; Greisen, 1966; Zatsepin and Kuz’min, 1966).
Testing the isotropy of high energy cosmic rays using spherical needlets
Soon after the microwave echo of the big bang was discovered, Greisen , Zatsepin, and Kuzmin (GZK) noted that the relic photons make the universe opaque to cosmic rays (CRs) of suﬃciently high energy.
Summary Report of JEM-EUSO Workshop at KICP in Chicago
Neither Rossi and Greisen nor Eyges use the term ‘scattering power’.
Techniques of Proton Radiotherapy: Transport Theory
In 1966, just after the discovery of the CMB, Greisen, Zatsepin and Kuzmine (GZK) predicted that this interaction causes a strong suppression of the CR ﬂux at around 1020 eV (GZK cutoff) .
Measurement of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays: An Experimental Summary and Prospects
Fe) remains, focus at this meeting was centered on the highest energy ones, namely those around and above the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff at ≈ 5 × 1019 eV [27,28].
Cosmic Ray Origin, Acceleration and Propagation
The ﬁnal PSPC mosaics are cast in the zenith equal-area azimuthal (ZEA; Greisen & Calabretta 1996) pro jection, which is similar over this solid angle to tangential pro jection.
Large Scale Diffuse X-ray Emission from the Large Magellanic Cloud
Ever since the discovery of the microwave background and the conclusions about the end of the UHECR spectrum derived by Greisen (1966) and by Zatsepin and Kuzmin (1966), the ﬁrst 1020 eV air shower detected by John Linsley (1963) was diﬃcult to interpret.
On the Luminosity of the Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays Sources
Applying an iterative shower-reconstruction procedure the number of electrons and muons in a shower are determined basically by maximizing a likelihood function describing the measurements with the Nishimura-Kamata-Greisen (NKG) formula (Kamata & Nishimura 1958; Greisen 1965) assuming a Moli`ere radius of 89 m.
Search for cosmic-ray point sources with KASCADE
For each mosaic we specify a desired World Coordinate System header (WCS; Greisen & Calabretta 2002).
Improved background subtraction for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey images
The idea of instrumenting a large volume of water as a target for naturally occurring neutrinos was discussed ﬁfty years ago by Reines 1) , by Greisen 2) and by Markov 3) .
IceCube: Status and Results
Among such features, particularly important is the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) suppression of the spectrum , an abrupt suppression of the observed proton ﬂux due to the interaction of UHE protons with the CMB radiation ﬁeld.
SimProp: a Simulation Code for Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray Propagation
The Starlink AST library provides a comprehensive range of facilities for attaching world co-ordinate systems to astronomical data, for retrieving and interpreting that information in a variety of formats, including FITS-WCS (Calabretta & Greisen 1999), and for generating graphical output based on it.
New Features in AST - a WCS Management and Manipulation Library