grain

Definitions

  • Woman Grinding Grain
    Woman Grinding Grain
  • WordNet 3.6
    • v grain become granular
    • v grain form into grains
    • v grain paint (a surface) to make it look like stone or wood
    • v grain thoroughly work in "His hands were grained with dirt"
    • n grain the physical composition of something (especially with respect to the size and shape of the small constituents of a substance) "breadfruit has the same texture as bread","sand of a fine grain","fish with a delicate flavor and texture","a stone of coarse grain"
    • n grain the direction, texture, or pattern of fibers found in wood or leather or stone or in a woven fabric "saw the board across the grain"
    • n grain the smallest possible unit of anything "there was a grain of truth in what he said","he does not have a grain of sense"
    • n grain foodstuff prepared from the starchy grains of cereal grasses
    • n grain a relatively small granular particle of a substance "a grain of sand","a grain of sugar"
    • n grain a cereal grass "wheat is a grain that is grown in Kansas"
    • n grain dry seed-like fruit produced by the cereal grasses: e.g. wheat, barley, Indian corn
    • n grain 1/7000 pound; equals a troy grain or 64.799 milligrams
    • n grain 1/60 dram; equals an avoirdupois grain or 64.799 milligrams
    • n grain a weight unit used for pearls or diamonds: 50 mg or 1/4 carat
    • n grain the side of leather from which the hair has been removed
    • ***

Additional illustrations & photos:

Slash-Grain and Comb-Grain Flooring Slash-Grain and Comb-Grain Flooring
GRAIN-AND-FLOUR MERCHANT OF PATNA GRAIN-AND-FLOUR MERCHANT OF PATNA

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: One ragweed plant can release as many as a million grains of pollen in one day
    • Grain A blade of a sword, knife, etc.
    • Grain A branch of a tree; a stalk or stem of a plant.
    • Grain A reddish dye made from the coccus insect, or kermes; hence, a red color of any tint or hue, as crimson, scarlet, etc.; sometimes used by the poets as equivalent to Tyrian purple. "All in a robe of darkest grain.""Doing as the dyers do, who, having first dipped their silks in colors of less value, then give' them the last tincture of crimson in grain."
    • Grain (Bot) A rounded prominence on the back of a sepal, as in the common dock. See Grained a., 4.
    • Grain A single small hard seed; a kernel, especially of those plants, like wheat, whose seeds are used for food.
    • Grain A sort of spice, the grain of paradise. "He cheweth grain and licorice,
      To smellen sweet."
    • Grain (Founding) A thin piece of metal, used in a mold to steady a core.
    • Grain A tine, prong, or fork.
    • Grain An iron fish spear or harpoon, having four or more barbed points.
    • Grain Any small, hard particle, as of sand, sugar, salt, etc.; hence, any minute portion or particle; as, a grain of gunpowder, of pollen, of starch, of sense, of wit, etc. "I . . . with a grain of manhood well resolved."
    • Grain One the branches of a valley or of a river.
    • v. & n Grain See Groan.
    • Grain Temper; natural disposition; inclination. "Brothers . . . not united in grain."
    • Grain The hair side of a piece of leather, or the marking on that side.
    • Grain The composite particles of any substance; that arrangement of the particles of any body which determines its comparative roughness or hardness; texture; as, marble, sugar, sandstone, etc., of fine grain . "Hard box, and linden of a softer grain ."
    • Grain The direction, arrangement, or appearance of the fibers in wood, or of the strata in stone, slate, etc. "Knots, by the conflux of meeting sap,
      Infect the sound pine and divert his grain Tortive and errant from his course of growth."
    • Grain The fiber which forms the substance of wood or of any fibrous material.
    • Grain The fruit of certain grasses which furnish the chief food of man, as corn, wheat, rye, oats, etc., or the plants themselves; -- used collectively. "Storehouses crammed with grain."
    • Grain The remains of grain, etc., after brewing or distillation; hence, any residuum. Also called draff.
    • Grain The unit of the English system of weights; -- so called because considered equal to the average of grains taken from the middle of the ears of wheat. 7,000 grains constitute the pound avoirdupois, and 5,760 grains the pound troy. A grain is equal to .0648 gram. See Gram.
    • Grain To form (powder, sugar, etc.) into grains.
    • Grain To form grains, or to assume a granular form, as the result of crystallization; to granulate.
    • Grain To paint in imitation of the grain of wood, marble, etc.
    • Grain To take the hair off (skins); to soften and raise the grain of (leather, etc.).
    • Grain To yield fruit.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: A human embryo is smaller than a grain of rice at four weeks old
    • n grain A small hard, seed; specifically, a seed of one of the cereal plants, wheat, rye, oats, barley, maize, or millet; a corn.
    • n grain Collectively, corn in general; the gathered seeds of cereal plants in mass; also, the plants themselves, whether standing or gathered: as, to grind or thresh grain; a field or a stack of grain.
    • n grain The smallest unit of weight in most systems, originally determined by the weight of a plump grain of wheat. In a pound troy or apothecaries' weight there are 5,760 grains, the grain being the 24th part of a pennyweight in the former and the 20th part of a scruple in the latter. The ounce of each therefore contains 480 grains, while in avoirdupois weight, in which the grain is not used, the ounce is equal to 437½ grains and the pound to 7,000 grains. Abbreviated gr.
    • n grain Any small hard particle, as of sand, gunpowder, sugar, salt, etc.; hence, a minute portion of anything; the smallest amount of anything: as, he has not a grain of wit.
    • n grain In botany, a grain-like prominence or tubercle, as upon the sepals of dock.
    • n grain plural The husks or remains of malt after brewing, or of any grain after distillation. It is used as feed for domestic animals: in the United States, for cows, which eat it greedily, but whose milk is made thinner and less nutritious by it, though temporarily increased in quantity, while the animal is soon materially injured.
    • n grain The quality of a substance due to the size, character, or arrangement of its grains or particles, as its coarseness or fineness, or superficial roughness or smoothness; granular texture: as, a stone or salt of coarse grain; marble or sugar of fine grain.
    • n grain Fibrous texture or constitution, especially of wood; the substance of wood as modified by the quality, arrangement, or direction of its fibers: as, boxwood has a very compact grain; wood of a gnarled grain; to plane wood with, against, or across the grain.
    • n grain Hence Intimate structure or character; intrinsic or essential quality.
    • n grain A spice: same as grains of paradise (which see, below).
    • n grain One of the grain-like insects of the genus Coccus, as C. polonicus or C. ilicis, which yield a scarlet dye; later, especially, cochineal; the product of the Coccus cacti; kermes: so called from the granular appearance of the dried insects. See cut under cochineal. Hence — A red-colored dye; a red color of any kind pervading the texture: sometimes used as equivalent to Tyrian purple, Any fast color. See in grain, below.
    • n grain The side of leather from which the hair has been removed, showing the fibrous texture.
    • n grain In mining, cleat or cleavage.
    • n grain plural A solution of birds' dung used in leather-manu facture to counteract the effects of lime and make the leather soft and flexible.
    • n grain With the soarlet dye obtained from insects of the genus Coccus.
    • n grain With any fast dye; in fast colors: as, to dye in grain.
    • n grain See def. 9.
    • grain To bring forth grain; yield fruit.
    • grain To form grains or assume a granular form; crystallize into grains, as sugar.
    • grain To produce, as from a seed.
    • grain In brewing, to free from grain; separate the grain from, as wort.
    • grain To form into grains, as powder, sugar, and the like.
    • grain To paint, etc., so as to give the appearance of grain or fibers of wood.
    • grain In tanning, to take the hair off of; soften and raise the grain of: as, to grain skins or leather.
    • grain To dye in grain.
    • n grain A tine, prong, or spike. See grain-staff, 1.
    • n grain The fork of a tree or of a stick.
    • n grain The groin.
    • n grain A piece of sheet-metal used in a mold to hold in position an additional part, as a core. Also called chapelet and gagger.
    • n grain plural An iron instrument with four or more barbed points, and a line attached to it, used at sea for striking and taking fish. In the United States these fish-spears are made in many patterns, with different numbers of prongs or barbs, sometimes only one prong and a half-barb. They oftenest have two prongs, each half-barbed inwardly. They are used for turtles as well as fish. Among seamen the plural is commonly used as a singular.
    • n grain plural A place at which two streams unite; the fork of a river.
    • n grain A dialectal (Scotch) form of groan.
    • n grain In the tobacco industry, a deposit of calcium oxalate, in scattered globules, often at the base of the hairs, formed upon tobacco-leaves in the process of curing and sweating.
    • n grain The English name for the copper coin called grano at Malta.
    • grain To scrape, as with a slicker, on the grain side.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: A one kilogram packet of sugar will have about 5 million grains of sugar
    • n Grain grān a single small hard seed:
    • v.t Grain to form into grains, cause to granulate: to paint in imitation of wood, marble, &c.: in tanning, to take the hair off
    • n Grain grān a prong, fork: a kind of harpoon.
    • n Grain grān (coll.) the seeds of certain plants which form the chief food of man: corn, in general: a minute particle: a very small quantity: the smallest British weight, supposed to be the average weight of a seed or well-ripened ear of corn: the arrangement of the particles or fibres of anything, as stone or wood: texture, as of leather: the crimson dye made from cochineal insects, which, in the prepared state, resemble grains of seed—hence to dye in grain is to dye deeply, also to dye in the wool: innate quality or character of anything
    • ***

Quotations

  • Bill Vaughan
    Bill Vaughan
    “If a farmer fills his barn with grain, he gets mice. If he leaves it empty, he gets actors.”
  • Robert W. Service
    Robert W. Service
    “It isn't the mountain ahead that wears you out; it's the grain of sand in your shoe.”
  • Proverb
    Proverb
    “Rebuke should have a grain more of salt than of sugar.”
  • William Blake
    William%20Blake
    “To see the world in a grain of sand, and to see heaven in a wild flower, hold infinity in the palm of your hand, and eternity in an hour.”
  • Hitopadesa
    Hitopadesa
    “A store of grain, Oh king is the best of treasures. A gem put in your mouth will not support life.”
  • Saadi
    Saadi
    “A little and a little, collected together, becomes a great deal; the heap in the barn consists of single grains, and drop and drop make the inundation.”

Idioms

Against the grain - If doing something goes against the grain, you're unwilling to do it because it contradicts what you believe in, but you have no real choice.
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Go against the grain - A person who does things in an unconventional manner, especially if their methods are not generally approved of, is said to go against the grain. Such an individual can be called a maverick.
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Grain of salt - If you should take something with a grain of salt, you shouldn't necessarily believe it all. ('pinch of salt' is an alternative)
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
F. grain, L. granum, grain, seed, small kernel, small particle. See Corn, and cf. Garner (n.) Garnet Gram the chick-pea, Granule Kernel.
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
Fr.,—L. granum, seed, akin to corn.

Usage

In literature:

Cut as nearly as possible, across the grain.
"Dishes & Beverages of the Old South" by Martha McCulloch Williams
The coffee grain will have the appearance already described.
"All About Coffee" by William H. Ukers
Each female emits ordinarily some 300 grains, more or less, some of them not being able to render them all, and dying with them in their belly.
"Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society - Vol 1 - 1666" by Various
Some day I hoped my father would take me to that shining market-place whereto he carried all our grain.
"A Son of the Middle Border" by Hamlin Garland
But that is because a little bit of the magic mirror is still in his eye, and another tiny grain remains in his heart.
"Boys and Girls Bookshelf (Vol 2 of 17)" by Various
The government had to buy the excess grain to keep the price up.
"Pariah Planet" by Murray Leinster
State different tests with grains.
"Boy Scouts Handbook" by Boy Scouts of America
It is the "Chicago of Canada," and hub of a world of grain, Queen City in the Kingdom of Bakers' Flour.
"Westward with the Prince of Wales" by W. Douglas Newton
Care is necessary in turning animals into fields of clover or stubble fields in which there is a strong growth of volunteer grain.
"Special Report on Diseases of Cattle" by U.S. Department of Agriculture
The English Troy pound of 12 ounces contains 5760 English Troy grains, and is equal to 7021 Paris grains.
"Elements of Chemistry," by Antoine Lavoisier
Flesh white, tender and fine-grained.
"Soil Culture" by J. H. Walden
Why does grain lodge?
"The Elements of Agriculture" by George E. Waring
The grain merchant began to cry.
"Indian Fairy Tales" by Anonymous
Look at the grain, Joseph, how it grows!
"Waterloo" by Émile Erckmann
They seek places where men live and sow and cultivate grain.
"Timar's Two Worlds" by Mór Jókai
The grains should be carefully cleaned from time to time and broken up to the size of peas.
"The Bacillus of Long Life" by Loudon Douglas
Ironware is also manufactured, and a considerable trade is maintained in grain and cattle.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 6, Slice 6" by Various
Salinas Valley is a grain-growing valley, its fields of grain stretching away up into the foothills.
"Across the Continent by the Lincoln Highway" by Effie Price Gladding
By adhering to the insides of sacks where they were placed with grain.
"Seeds of Michigan Weeds" by W. J. (William James) Beal
The grain in both cases is good.
"Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, Volume 58, No. 362, December 1845" by Various
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In poetry:

The ships that raced the wool,
The grain, the jute, the tea,
Titania beautiful,
And proud Thermophylae;
"The Ships He Served Of Old" by Cicely Fox Smith
And now I hear it in the grass
That grows as sweet again
And let a minutes notice pass
And now tis in the grain
"The Landrail" by John Clare
The valleys with the sheeted grain,
The river's smiling might,
The merry wind, the rustling rain,
The vastness of the night.
"Amor Vitae" by Archibald Lampman
A grain of--ought I mention names
And say whence sleep may be inspired?
Is it the thing to say of James,
"He makes me tired?"
""Bedbooks"" by Franklin Pierce Adams
When the grass is ripe like grain,
When the scythe is stoned again,
When the lawn is shaven clear,
Then my hole shall reappear.
"The Dumb Soldier" by Robert Louis Stevenson
I heard the joy of the reapers' song,
As they gathered golden grain;
Then wearily turned unto my task,
With a lonely sense of pain.
"Go Work in My Vineyard" by Frances Ellen Watkins Harper

In news:

Take this honor with a small grain of salt, Lakewood Landing.
For pundits, Freakonomists, and Malcolm Gladwell, following the crowd meant going against the grain.
As Americans have been discovering this whole-grain variety of wheat, Italians have been rediscovering it.
Couscous , a tiny grain-like pasta made from semolina flour, is the basis of many Middle Eastern dishes.
He is the writer of the Greed, Greens and Grains blog.
Arsenal Pulp Press), dishes up exciting new twists on an age-old tradition, focusing on raw, gluten-free, and whole grain treats, like the one below.
Whole-grain 'risotto' doesn't need to be daunting .
His zesty version includes southern Italian green olives, dried oregano and whole-grain barley rolls from Puglia called friselle.
Innovative hydraulic lift system builds 156-ft diameter , free-standing grain bin.
Marcia Crawford, Dietitian – All About Whole Grains, Part 1.
Low-test weight grain as well as shriveled or off color or black-tipped grain is causing their concerns.
View full size Portland Fire & Rescue Extra crews, including fire boats, were called to Columbia Grain, Inc, in North Portland this morning after an employee smelled smoke near one of the terminal's 30 grain elevators, officials said.
Here's how to sprout whole-grain berries for use as an ingredient in sprouted -grain bread.
And I'm struck with sad amazement how much you've aged since I last saw you— your face wearing away like sand, grain by invisible grain.
Using 12" horizontal augers to collect grain and a 17" main auger to deliver it to a trailer or grain cart, it is capable of filling a 1,000-bu.
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In science:

Indeed, the D-G mechanism assumes that the relaxation rate is the same whether grain rotates in stationary magnetic field or magnetic field rotates around a stationary grain.
Physics of Grain Alignment
The same thermal trapping makes grain alignment less efficient in molecular clouds where grain rotational temperature approaches its body temperature.
Physics of Grain Alignment
Kim & Martin 1995) allows to find for different environments the critical grain size starting with which grains are aligned.
Physics of Grain Alignment
In particular jν,e depends on it trough the dust grain temperature T : grain heating is almost always dominated by the radiation field.
High-Redshift Galaxies: The Far-Infrared and Sub-Millimeter View
It may be that OMC-1 contains a grain population with larger than normal sizes, or more than usual amounts of a particular grain composition.
The SCUBA Local Universe Galaxy Survey II. 450 micron data - evidence for cold dust in bright IRAS Galaxies
The particular extinction curve each type of grains must have, the necessity to respect cosmic abundances, tightly constrain the nature of the grains and led to several models of grains.
The incompatibilities between the standard theory of interstellar extinction and observations
Spinning dust grains tend to align their long axes perpendicular to the magnetic field, so thermal emission from the grains is polarized perpendicular to the field.
Magnetic Field Morphology of Orion-IRc2 from 86 GHz SiO Maser Polarization Images
In work by Hartle and Brun , it is speculated that local coarse graining produces more deterministic effective equations of motion than nonlocal coarse graining.
Coarse graining and control theory model reduction
To determine the best possible coarse graining or at least near the optimal coarse graining, we will proceed to use the Hankel operator machinery to obtain bounds for kG − ˜Gr kL2 [0,T ],i .
Coarse graining and control theory model reduction
This again suggests that the most natural coarse grainings are local coarse grainings.
Coarse graining and control theory model reduction
The biggest uncertainty in estimates of the degree of coupling of the magnetic field to the disk is the grain population, as ions and electrons stick to grain surfaces and the mobility of the typical charge carriers is much reduced.
Early Disk Evolution
If the grains are warm then the ability of H-atoms to form H2 on the grain surfaces is greatly reduced (Hollenbach & Salpeter 1971).
Colliding molecular clouds in head-on galaxy collisions
Alternative scenarios to explain simultaneously the optical and X-ray data involve dust with grain size distributions biased toward large grains.
Absorption in Gamma Ray Burst afterglows
If this is indeed the case, or if other processes are responsible for the replenishment of small grains, then the typical grain sizes inferred from infrared spectral features of T Tauri disks do not necessarily reflect the age of the system (small grains → young, larger grains → older), as is often proposed.
Dust coagulation in protoplanetary disks: a rapid depletion of small grains
Differential settling is the process by which large grains, which settle faster than small grains, sweep up the smaller grains on their way to the midplane.
Dust coagulation in protoplanetary disks: a rapid depletion of small grains
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