# given

## Definitions

• Making a Number of Like Pieces from a Given Piece
• WordNet 3.6
• adj given acknowledged as a supposition "given the engine's condition, it is a wonder that it started"
• adj given (usually followed by `to') naturally disposed toward "he is apt to ignore matters he considers unimportant","I am not minded to answer any questions"
• n given an assumption that is taken for granted
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A Belt of Wampum Given to Penn by the Indians
BALIN WAS GIVEN THE CROWN TO WEAR ON HIS SHIELD

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
• Interesting fact: Because metal was scarce; the Oscars given out during World War II were made of plaster
• Given p. p. & a. from Give v.
• Given Disposed; inclined; -- used with an adv.; as, virtuously given .
• Given (Math. & Logic) Granted; assumed; supposed to be known; set forth as a known quantity, relation, or premise.
• Given Stated; fixed; as, in a given time.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
• Interesting fact: Twit is the name given for a pregnant goldfish
• given Granted; executed and delivered. Compare date
• given Conferred; bestowed; imparted; not inherited or possessed naturally: as, a given name.
• given Admitted; supposed; allowed as a supposition; conceding: as, given A and B, C follows.
• given Specified or that might be specified or stated; certain; particular; specifically, in mathematics, virtually known or determined: as, a given magnitude—that is, a known magnitude. When the position of a thing is known it is said to be given in position; and the ratio between two quantities being known, these quantities are said to have a given ratio. According to the definitions of Euclid (in his “Data”), a magnitude is given when we can find another equal to it, a ratio is given when an identical ratio can be found, a position is given when it remains constantly the same, etc.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
• Interesting fact: In 1920, 57% of Hollywood movies billed the female star above the leading man. In 1990, only 18% had the leading lady given top billing.
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## Quotations

• Groucho Marx
“My mother loved children -- she would have given anything if I had been one.”
• George F. Will
“We are given children to test us and make us more spiritual.”
• French Proverb
“A good swordsman is not given to quarrel.”
• Georges Guynemer
“If one has not given everything, one has given nothing.”
• Orison Swett Marden
“The greatest thing a man can do in this world is to make the most possible out of the stuff that has been given him. This is success, and there is no other.”
• Johann Kaspar Lavater
“Who in the same given time can produce more than others has vigor; who can produce more and better, has talents; who can produce what none else can, has genius.”

## Idioms

Given the day that's in it - (Irish) This idiom is used when something is obvious because of the day that it occurs: traffic, for example would be busy around a football stadium on game day, given the day that's in it. On any other day the traffic would be unexplainable, but because its game day its obvious why there is traffic.
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If you are given lemons make lemonade - Always try and make the best out of a bad situation. With some ingenuity you can make a bad situation useful.
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## Etymology

Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
A.S. giefan; Goth. giban, Ger. geben.

## Usage

### In literature:

The commands are given for the execution of the movements toward either flank.
"Manual of Military Training" by James A. Moss
They were given to the horse on my account.
"Fairy Tales of Hans Christian Andersen" by Hans Christian Andersen
Wherever God has given faith, it is given, among other reasons, for the very purpose of being tried.
"The Life of Trust: Being a Narrative of the Lord's Dealings With George Müller" by George Müller
This is given in occasional lectures or inspirational talks before the class.
"The Art of Stage Dancing" by Ned Wayburn
In all cases where the detail was given it had diminished greatly.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 3, Part 1, Slice 3" by Various
All emetics are said to act with greater certainty when given in a morning, if an opiate had been given the night before.
"Zoonomia, Vol. II" by Erasmus Darwin
The invention of printing had given new facilities to the intercourse of mind with mind.
"Critical and Historical Essays, Volume III (of 3)" by Thomas Babington Macaulay
The spies were given one-fourth of the fine collected.
"All About Coffee" by William H. Ukers
I have given my word now.
"Robin Hood" by Paul Creswick
An instance has been already given of supernumerary digits appearing in four children out of six in a previously unaffected family.
"The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication, Volume II (of 2)" by Charles Darwin
Wolf Paw must have given the alarm.
"Shaman" by Robert Shea
They are given at balls, that partners may be found for all the dancers.
"Social Life" by Maud C. Cooke
At a given hour operations will cease, and all will assemble at the given spot to hand in their reports.
"Boy Scouts Handbook" by Boy Scouts of America
Short written tests are given once each month, and a longer written test is given at the end of each term.
"College Teaching" by Paul Klapper
Schumann's "Manfred Overture" given at a concert given by Carl Bergmann, New York.
"Annals of Music in America" by Henry Charles Lahee
Before using the battery, it should be given a freshening charge at the rate given on page 510.
"The Automobile Storage Battery" by O. A. Witte
When a young lady takes time to consider she has, as a rule, given way, Lord George felt it to be so, and was triumphant.
"Is He Popenjoy?" by Anthony Trollope
Another time a sleighing party was given by some school girls, and Stella, Eugene and Myrtle were invited.
"The "Genius"" by Theodore Dreiser
What care should be given the teeth and mouth?
"American Red Cross Text-Book on Home Hygiene and Care of the Sick" by Jane A. Delano
Every consideration, however, ought to be given to the condition of the beast.
"The Dog" by Dinks, Mayhew, and Hutchinson
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### In poetry:

A thousand lights had smitten her
Into this thing;
Life had taken her and given her
One place to sing.
"To A Cabaret Dancer" by Djuna Barnes
Alone, O Love ineffable!
Thy saving name is given;
To turn aside from Thee is hell,
To walk with Thee is heaven!
"Our Master" by John Greenleaf Whittier
"Yet mirrored in the sullen stream
The holy stars are given
Is Norembega, then, a dream
Whose waking is in Heaven?
"Norembega" by John Greenleaf Whittier
Given, not lent,
And not withdrawn—once sent -
This Infant of mankind, this One,
Is still the little welcome Son.
"Unto Us A Son Is Given" by Alice Meynell
Long since its strength was given
To making good increase,
And now its soul is turned again
To beauty and to peace.
"The Deserted Pasture" by Bliss William Carman
Then in thy crown shall many stars
To thee be given;
And all thy tears, and wounds, and scars,
Be heal'd in heaven.
"In Memoriam, On The Late Right Reverend Richard Allen, First Bishop Of The A. M. E. Church" by Benjamin Cutler Clark

### In news:

Her age was variously given as 60 or 62.
But he also wasn't one of those whose success was a virtual given.
Steve Mitchell/US Presswire Mets manager Jerry Manuel, shown signing autographs for fans Thursday in Florida, has given mixed signals about his batting order .
Bugs have effectively given Cottage Grove an ultimatum: Kill your ash trees, or we will do it for you.
Colgate attackman Peter Baum won the Tewaaraton Award, an honor given to the best player in college lacrosse.
John Locke of Hyannis is one of two winners of \$1,500 scholarships recently awarded by the Three Bays Preservation Scholarship Fund, given to students pursuing studies in the field of environmental science.
A bald eagle named Beauty is given a prosthetic beak to help her preen and clean after she was shot.
Rangers starting pitcher Yu Darvish has given up a bunch of runs lately, including tonight.
One week, Ben Roethlisberger is being given a diploma after graduating from college.
NBC has given its current batch of Sunday night mini-series a name: Survival Sundays.
The Early Show co-anchor Harry Smith interviewed the two who say they have been given new details by the military about the way their son died more than a year ago.
The following, the second part of a two-part series, is excerpted from a talk originally given by Saul Bellow in 1988 and now published here for the first time.
Taro Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd has given a thumbs-down to an unsolicited buyout proposal by Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. Taro Pharmaceutical Industries, Sun Pharmaceutical Industries, buyout, Pharmaceutical.
All of us at one time or another have given a gift to a friend.
The largest voter turnout ever has given the Town of Guilderland a win.
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### In science:

Other deﬁnitions are given after the statements, and relative versions are given in §3.
Dual 2-complexes in 4-manifolds
This is given by N (a, b, c) times a determinantal correlation function like (2.10) but where we now have instead the Hahn kernel given by the formula (2.11) with the Hahn polynomials and the Hahn weight instead.
Non-intersecting Paths, Random Tilings and Random Matrices
Our ﬁrst evaluation is the number of walks of given length and given number of inversions.
Enumeration of simple random walks and tridiagonal matrices
Other perspectives on the DLCQ limit are given in Balasubramanian, Gopakumar, and Larsen (1998) and de Alwis (1999). A nice synthesis of the various approaches to the matrix theory limit is given in Polchinski (1999).
M(atrix) Theory: Matrix Quantum Mechanics as a Fundamental Theory
Indeed, p ˆTi (n, p) is given by the sum of independent random variables and the number of terms is given by ˆλi = PN j=i aij that approaches the Poisson random variables λi with parameters ip/N ≤ p, respectively.
Stochastic version of the Erdos-Renyi limit theorem
It is clear that if we have an uncorrelated data set, τ ⋆ = 0 and the expression for the statistical error given by Eq. (90) reduces to that given by Eq. (75).
An Introduction to Monte Carlo Simulation of Statistical physics Problem
In the connectivity space, |Z (m)i is a vector whose components are given by the partial partition function Z (m, {ηi}m) of a strip of length m whose connectivity on the last row is given by {ηi}m .
Quenched bond dilution in two-dimensional Potts models
For a given substitution T , that trasforms the word α to the word β , and for a given partition g = g (α) of the set V (α) of symbols of the word α deﬁne partitions g (β ) of the word β .
Gibbs and Quantum Discrete Spaces
In this case, one would expect cluster ellipticals to have formed more rapidly and thus to have higher Mg2 at a given (V −I )0 , or equivalently, to be bluer at a given Mg2 .
A Synthesis of Data from Fundamental Plane and Surface Brightness Fluctuation Surveys
Further results are given in Chapter 17 of and in Theorems IX.4.21 and IX.4.26 of . A particular case with many applications is where the limiting process is deterministic and is given by a differential equation, sometimes called a ﬂuid limit.
Structure of large random hypergraphs
Mass(Flavour,double) returns the mass for a given Flavour of a particle at a given scale.
AMEGIC++ 1.0, A Matrix Element Generator In C++
The details of these subroutines are likely to be speciﬁc to a given MEG and may also be speciﬁc to a given SHG.
Generic User Process Interface for Event Generators
Solutions of this type are the minimal solutions in the sense of Ref. : For a given initial covariance matrix Γ and a given matrix M the equation G = K T G−1K speciﬁes those symmetric matrices G that add minimal noise.
Conditions for the local manipulation of Gaussian states
It can be easily seen that the Hamiltonian given by Legendre transformation is completely the same as that given by inertial energy-momentum tensor.
Gauge Theory of Gravity
In close analogy with β = 4 Hermitean matrix ensembles, the n-point correlation function is given by a quaternion determinant [Eq. (6)] of an n × n matrix whose entries are quaternions with an image given by 2 × 2 matrices in the form of Eq. (7).
Eigenvalue correlations in non-Hermitean symplectic random matrices
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