germanium

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n germanium a brittle grey crystalline element that is a semiconducting metalloid (resembling silicon) used in transistors; occurs in germanite and argyrodite
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • n Germanium (Chem) A rare element, discovered in 1885 in a silver ore (argyrodite) at Freiberg. It is a brittle, silver-white metal, chemically intermediate between the metals and nonmetals, resembles tin, and is in general identical with the predicted ekasilicon. Symbol Ge. Atomic number 32. Atomic weight 72.59. It has excellent semiconductor properties, and is used in transistors and diodes.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n germanium Chemical symbol, Ge; specific gravity, 5.469; atomic weight, 72.3. An element discovered in 1885 by Winkler in the mineral argyrodite, which is a sulphid of germanium and silver. It is a metal of gray-white color and fine metallic luster, and crystallizes in octahedrons. It melts at about 900° C. It does not tarnish in air at ordinary temperature, is insoluble in hydrochloric acid, is oxidized by nitric acid, and dissolves in aqua regia. In the periodic system germanium takes the place of the hypothetical eka-silicium, between gallium and arsenic on the one hand and silicon and zinc on the other. Germanium is also said to be present in the mineral euxenite.
    • n germanium The discovery of this chemical element in 1885 constituted the third verification of Mendelejeff's prediction that elements, unknown when his periodic law was pointed out, would later be discovered having approximately certain atomic weights and certain properties which he indicated. Germanium has been found in argyrodite from Saxony and also in minerals from Bolivia.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Germanium jėr-mā′ni-um an element discovered in 1885 in argyrodite.
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
NL., fr. L. Germania, Germany

Usage

In literature:

On the one side is carbon, with below it titanium and zirconium; on the other silicon, with germanium and tin.
"Occult Chemistry" by Annie Besant and Charles W. Leadbeater
C. Winkler decided the atomic weight of germanium by similar reasoning.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 6, Slice 1" by Various
C., it is decomposed by water forming a hydrated germanium dioxide.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 11, Slice 7" by Various
Gadolinum discovered by Marignac, and Germanium by Winkler.
"The Progress of Invention in the Nineteenth Century." by Edward W. Byrn
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In news:

Announcing The Launch Of Germanium Transistors Dot Com.
Accumulation of germanium in the tissues of a long-term user of germanium preparation who died of acute renal failure.
At the IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium today, Infineon Technologies AG launched a new SiGe:C (Silicon-Germanium: Carbon) HBT (hetero-junction bipolar transistor) device series for Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) applications.
The coal bed around Xilinhot, a Mongolian city, boasts 38% of global reserves of germanium, a rare earth used in the making of circuitry for solar cells and wind turbines.
Unlike traditional transistors , which consist of silicon and germanium, the Illinois transistors use indium phosphide and indium gallium arsenide.
Announcing The Launch Of Germanium Transistors Dot Com .
Germanium Transistor Dot Com , specializes in the supply and testing of rare vintage transistors specifically for guitar effects pedals applications.
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In science:

With a proper choice of detector, a very high energy resolution up to FWHM=0.1% at Qββ can be achieved as in Germanium or bolometer detectors.
Review of double beta experiments
So it was natural to start with them with a relatively more exhaustive description. I will then present the germanium technique.
Review of double beta experiments
A first radiopurity measurement of purified selenium samples can be performed by γ spectrometry with ultra low background HPGe (High Purity Germanium) detectors.
Review of double beta experiments
Ultra radiopure Germanium semiconductor diodes have been used historicaly as one of the first detectors for the direct search of ββ -decay using source as detector .
Review of double beta experiments
However Germanium detectors are today well established detectors, manufactured in large amount, and excellent energy resolution of few keV at 2 MeV is obtained when diodes are used at Liquid Nitrogen temperature.
Review of double beta experiments
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