gas

Definitions

  • Dressing a gas burn case
    Dressing a gas burn case
  • WordNet 3.6
    • v gas show off
    • v gas attack with gas; subject to gas fumes "The despot gassed the rebellious tribes"
    • n gas a pedal that controls the throttle valve "he stepped on the gas"
    • n gas a state of excessive gas in the alimentary canal
    • n gas the state of matter distinguished from the solid and liquid states by: relatively low density and viscosity; relatively great expansion and contraction with changes in pressure and temperature; the ability to diffuse readily; and the spontaneous tendency to become distributed uniformly throughout any container
    • n gas a volatile flammable mixture of hydrocarbons (hexane and heptane and octane etc.) derived from petroleum; used mainly as a fuel in internal-combustion engines
    • n gas a fluid in the gaseous state having neither independent shape nor volume and being able to expand indefinitely
    • n gas a fossil fuel in the gaseous state; used for cooking and heating homes
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Additional illustrations & photos:

Refilling Pintsch Gas Buoy Refilling Pintsch Gas Buoy
Coal gas plant Coal gas plant
Water gas installation Water gas installation
Acetylene gas generator Acetylene gas generator
Welsbach gas burner Welsbach gas burner
Gas-bags Gas-bags

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: On average a person passes gas 14 times a day
    • Gas (Popular Usage) A complex mixture of gases, of which the most important constituents are marsh gas, olefiant gas, and hydrogen, artificially produced by the destructive distillation of gas coal, or sometimes of peat, wood, oil, resin, etc. It gives a brilliant light when burned, and is the common gas used for illuminating purposes.
    • Gas An aëriform fluid; -- a term used at first by chemists as synonymous with air, but since restricted to fluids supposed to be permanently elastic, as oxygen, hydrogen, etc., in distinction from vapors, as steam, which become liquid on a reduction of temperature. In present usage, since all of the supposed permanent gases have been liquified by cold and pressure, the term has resumed nearly its original signification, and is applied to any substance in the elastic or aëriform state.
    • Gas an exceptionally enjoyable event; a good time; as, The concert was a gas .
    • Gas (Popular Usage) Any irrespirable aëriform fluid.
    • Gas (Popular Usage) Laughing gas.
    • Gas same as gasoline; -- a shortened form. Also, the accelerator pedal of a motor vehicle; used in the term “ step on the gas”.
    • Gas Same as natural gas.
    • Gas the accelerator pedal of a motor vehicle; used in the term “ step on the gas”.
    • Gas to expose to a poisonous or noxious gas "The protest threatened to become violent, and the police gassed the demonstrators to force them to disperse."
    • Gas To impregnate with gas; as, to gas lime with chlorine in the manufacture of bleaching powder.
    • Gas (Textiles) To singe, as in a gas flame, so as to remove loose fibers; as, to gas thread.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: A cow releases about 125 gallons of gas per day
    • n gas A substance possessing perfect molecular mobility and the property of indefinite expansion. The term was originally synonymous with air, but was afterward applied to substances supposed (but wrongly—see below) to be incapable of reduction to a liquid or solid state. In accordance with this use a gas was defined to be a permanently elastic fluid or air differing from common air. According to the kinetic theory of gases, now accepted, the molecules of a gas are in a state of rapid motion in right lines, constantly colliding with one another and with the walls of any containing vessel, and hence exerting pressure against them. For example, in the case of air at ordinary temperatures it is calculated that the average velocity of the molecules is about that of a rifle-bullet as it leaves the gun. If a gas is compressed into less volume, the number of impacts against the sides of the containing vessel is increased, and hence the pressure or tension increases, and conversely (Boyle's law). The temperature, according to this theory, is the average kinetic energy of a molecule; hence, increased temperature brings increased momentum, and so increased pressure on the walls of the vessel. This theory also explains many of the phenomena of viscosity, diffusion, etc. By increased pressure and diminished temperature (at least below the critical point) any gas can be reduced to the liquid form, the amount of pressure and degree of cold required differing widely with different gases. The so-called fixed or permanent gases, which were long supposed to be incoercible, as hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, etc., yield only to extreme conditions of cold and pressure. There is no essential difference between a gas and a vapor (see vapor), but for convenience the latter name is given to the gaseous form of substances which under the ordinary conditions of temperature and pressure are liquids or solids. Vapors and the gases most easily liquefied deviate most widely from Boyle's law, that the volume is inversely proportional to the pressure, and also from the law of the constant increment of expansion with increase of temperature. Gases are distinguished from liquids by the name of elastic fluids, because of their power of indefinite expansion. (See liquid.) The number of gaseous bodies is great, and they differ greatly in their chemical properties. They are all, however, susceptible of combining chemically with fluid and solid substances. Some of them are of great importance in the arts and manufactures, as, for example, carbonic acid or carbon dioxid, sulphurous acid or sulphur dioxid, and coal-gas. Gases are ordinarily invisible.
    • n gas Specifically In coal-mining, any explosive mixture of fire-damp with common air.
    • n gas In popular language, a compound of various gases, used for illuminating and heating purposes. It is some form of carbureted hydrogen artificially made and distributed by pipes to points of consumption. The common kind is coal-gas, obtained from bituminous coals by carbonization in retorts at a high temperature. A carbureted hydrogen gas, called water-gas, resulting from the passing of steam through a mass of incandescent carbon and the subsequent admixture of hydrocarbons or other enriching substances, is also used. Oil-gas is an illuminating gas obtained by the distilling at high temperature of petroleum or other liquid hydrocarbons.
    • n gas A gas-light: as, the gas is dim; turn down the gas.
    • n gas Empty or idle talk; frothy speech; rant.
    • gas To remove loose filaments from (net, lace, etc.) by passing the material between rollers and exposing it to the action of a large number of minute jets of gas.
    • gas To talk nonsense or falsehood to; impose upon by wheedling, frothy, or empty speech.
    • gas To indulge in “gas” or empty talk; talk nonsense.
    • n gas Specifically, nitrous-oxid gas when used to produce anæsthesia, most commonly by dentists.
    • gas To treat with a gas or expose to the action of a gas, as is done with slaked lime in the manufacture of bleaching-powder.
    • gas To overcome or poison by means of the inhalation of gas.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Cows release 50 million metric tonnes of methane gas a year.
    • n Gas gas a vaporous substance not condensed into a liquid at ordinary terrestrial temperatures and pressures—esp. that obtained from coal, used in lighting houses:
    • v.t Gas to supply with gas:
    • v.i Gas to vapour, talk boastfully
    • n Gas gas (coll.) frothy talk
    • v.t Gas (U.S.) to impose on by talking gas
    • ***

Quotations

  • Harrison Ford
    Harrison Ford
    “I'm an assistant storyteller. It's like being a waiter or a gas-station attendant, but I'm waiting on six million people a week, if I'm lucky. [On being an actor]”
  • Grant Show
    Grant Show
    “I think that there were only two people in my high school that were comfortable there, and I think they are both pumping gas now.”
  • Earl Wilson
    Earl Wilson
    “Modern man drives a mortgaged car over a bond-financed highway on credit-card gas.”
  • Henry Ward Beecher
    Henry%20Ward%20Beecher
    “God made man to go by motives, and he will not go without them, any more than a boat without steam or a balloon without gas.”
  • Charles Baudelaire
    Charles%20Baudelaire
    “True Civilization does not lie in gas, nor in steam, nor in turn-tables. It lies in the reduction of the traces of original sin.”
  • Dorothy Parker
    Dorothy%20Parker
    “Razors pain you; rivers are damp; acids stain you; and drugs cause cramp. Guns aren't lawful; nooses give; gas smells awful; you might as well live.”

Idioms

Cooking with gas - (USA) If you're cooking with gas, you're working very efficiently.
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Having a gas - If you're having a gas, you are having a laugh and enjoying yourself in company.
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Run out of gas - If a campaign, project, etc, runs out of gas, it loses energy and momentum, and progress slows or halts.
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
Invented by the chemist Van Helmont of Brussels, who died in 1644

Usage

In literature:

Alighted from carriage, we pass into a place like a banking-house, lighted up with gas.
"The Life of Charles Dickens, Vol. I-III, Complete" by John Forster
CONVERSION OF BODIES INTO GAS.
"Philosophy of Osteopathy" by Andrew T. Still
Gas attack followed charge, and charge succeeded gas attack.
"Air Service Boys Flying for Victory" by Charles Amory Beach
While we were at Fort St. Menge we received our gas masks and we were compelled to go through many gas mask drills.
"In the Flash Ranging Service" by Edward Alva Trueblood
Gas, sent over in shells, made an unpleasant addition to the already numerous "attractions" of the picnic.
"Norman Ten Hundred" by A. Stanley Blicq
It took her fully as long to make the oil and gas from the bodies of the little organisms that once lived in the sea.
"Conservation Reader" by Harold W. Fairbanks
This gas is consequently found bubbling up through stagnant water.
"Manures and the principles of manuring" by Charles Morton Aikman
In order to get the hottest possible flame, the quantity of gas and air must be mixed in the right proportions.
"Gas and Oil Engines, Simply Explained" by Walter C. Runciman
Warm the pipette in the gas flame so as to melt the sealing wax and make an air-tight joint.
"The Elements of Bacteriological Technique" by John William Henry Eyre
This type forms gas in milk so that the soured milk is torn by the presence of gas bubbles.
"Outlines of Dairy Bacteriology, 8th edition" by H. L. Russell
The oil and gas distillates migrate upward under gas pressure and under pressure of the ground-water.
"The Economic Aspect of Geology" by C. K. Leith
On the afternoon of the last day before we left a black gas boat filled with people came away from the shore.
"The Red Watch" by J. A. Currie
A small bead of gas burned on a bracket somewhere behind the counter.
"The Combined Maze" by May Sinclair
The kerosene stove may be used instead of a gas stove in houses which are not piped for a gas supply.
"Scouting For Girls, Official Handbook of the Girl Scouts" by Girl Scouts
Gas roasting requires from fifteen to twenty minutes.
"All About Coffee" by William H. Ukers
Some buried memory of gas attacks woke Riley from his stupor.
"Astounding Stories of Super-Science February 1930" by Various
I had to open the gas tank and let out pressure to get any gas on the rags, and it wasn't easy, standing on my head in the cockpit.
"The Flying Stingaree" by Harold Leland Goodwin
The weight of this gas, at the temperature of 10 deg.
"Elements of Chemistry," by Antoine Lavoisier
In addition to all other equipment, each man carried two gas masks.
""And they thought we wouldn't fight"" by Floyd Gibbons
Many researches have shown that the combustion of an inflammable gas-mixture which is started at a point, e.g.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 6, Slice 1" by Various
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In poetry:

And while my life enjoys zestfully eating and fills with gas,
I feel him lean in that requisite little side room,
Where he invisibly reads, rustling the evening paper.
"One Hour Ater The Dance Of Death" by Franz Werfel
A girl in a window seat —
Dusk, and a single lamp
Lit in a long, grey street —
White face against the glass,
Blurred with the misty damp,
Stained by the yellow gas;
"An Impression" by John Joy Bell
Sits the plumber, man of metal.
Joining gas-pipes to a kettle.
'Neath the bed his wife is lying
Rather silent—she is dying
From some gin her husband gave her.
He's too busy now to save her.
"Owed To Volstead" by Wallace Irwin
The stage flies took fire owing to the gas
Not having room enough by them to pass;
And with his jacket Mr. Macaulay tried to put out the flame,
But oh! horrible to relate, it was all in vain.
"The Burning of the People's Variety Theatre, Aberdeen" by William Topaz McGonagall
'My Love!' one moaned. Love-languid seemed his mood,
Till slowly lowered, his whole faced kissed the mud.
And the Bayonets' long teeth grinned;
Rabbles of Shells hooted and groaned;
And the Gas hissed.
"The Last Laugh" by Wilfred Owen
At three in the morning I used to be sleeping an untroubled
sleep in my bed.
But lately at three in the morning I'm tossing and turning,
Awakened by hypochondria, and gas, and nameless dread,
Whose name I've been learning. (worry)
"Three (O'clock) in the Morning" by Judith Viorst

In news:

Royal Dutch Shell's decision to invest $1 billion a year in shale gas exploration in China has not changed Shell Canada's plans to build a liquefied natural gas terminal at Kitimat aimed at the Chinese market.
The state Public Service Commission this week ordered natural gas utilities to lower the purchased gas portion of their rates as colder weather approaches.
The state Public Service Commission ordered natural gas utilities to lower the purchased gas portion of their rates -- based on the amount the gas companies pay their suppliers -- as colder weather approaches.
Pittsburgh, has launched a pilot program in which it has converted a diesel rotary rig to run on natural gas liquefied from local Marcellus gas production.
Dana Gas PJSC, Sharjah, is preparing a development plan for a discovery of 4-6 bcf of gas in place, its second this year and its 23rd since 2006 in Egypt's onshore Nile Delta.
Inc, Tulsa, has signed a definitive agreement to sell its 5,800 mile Texas Gas Transmission Corp. (TGT) natural gas system to Loews Pipeline Holding Corp. A unit of Loews Corp.
Gaffney, Cline & Associates (GCA) said Turkmenistan 's South Iolotan natural gas field is the world's second-largest, with an estimated 21.2 trillion cu m (tcm) of gas reserves.
MIAMI, FL – MARCH 16: The price of gas is seen at a gas station on March 16, 2012 in Miami, Florida.
OGX Petroleo e Gas SA has extended and proposes to rename its Waikiki complex of oil and gas discoveries in the Campos basin offshore Brazil Tubarao Martelo field.
In a recent TechnoMetrica survey, 70% of Americans said that they are familiar with natural gas as a motor fuel and nearly half of those who are aware would consider buying a vehicle which runs on natural gas.
Gas Station TV, installed in gas stations throughout the United States, uses a local Scala InfoChannel system to run unique advertising that drives the company's revenue.
In cities and towns throughout the country, natural gas utilities are working with their local governments to find cost-effective ways to ensure the safe and reliable delivery of clean natural gas.
Proponents of shale gas drilling have launched a new ad campaign calling on state officials to bring a four-year environmental review to a close and allow gas development to begin in New York.
Groundwater near oil and gas wells is up for discussion by the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission.
Gas prices at a gas station, in Portland, Ore.
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In science:

This behavior can be understood as equilibrium state of interacting one dimensional gas under the assumption that the information contained in the positions of individual gas particles is minimized.
The statistical properties of the city transport in Cuernavaca (Mexico) and Random matrix ensembles
As one can see from comparing the relative abundances of the ice mantle molecules and the gas phase molecules, the ice mantles are not made simply by accretion from the gas.
Cosmic Dust in the 21st Century
If the unbound fraction is modeled as a polarized Debye-H´uckel gas of counterions, this gas contributes to the osmotic coefficient φ, as φM = π/(kB T nQ) = f /2 = 1/(2Q).
Osmotic Properties of Charged Cylinders: Critical Evaluation of Counterion Condensation Theory
Direct observational searches for cluster gas in the form of molecular, neutral, and ionized hydrogen have yielded only non-detections (Smith et al. 1990; Smith, Woodsworth, & Hesser 1995; Knapp et al. 1996), implying upper limits to the total gas content in the range ∼ 0.1 - 10 M⊙ .
Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton Accretion Model for Low-luminosity X-ray Sources in Globular Clusters
In order to compare our gas dynamical calculations with internal supernova heating with discussions of external pre-heating in the current literature, we consider gas flowing into dark halos of three masses representing galaxy groups, poor clusters and rich clusters.
Entropy Evolution in Galaxy Groups and Clusters; A Comparison of External and Internal Heating
For those models involving gas flow within optical galaxies, the gas dynamic equations equations have additional source terms for stellar mass loss and heating by stars and Type Ia supernovae.
Entropy Evolution in Galaxy Groups and Clusters; A Comparison of External and Internal Heating
The density and X-ray luminosity of hydrostatically supported gas in dark halos are both lower when the gas is heated.
Entropy Evolution in Galaxy Groups and Clusters; A Comparison of External and Internal Heating
If gas and dark matter scale homologously within the virial radius and if all the gas that passes through the accretion shock remains within rvir , the gas density should be the same at any fraction of rvir regardless of the mass of the cluster.
Entropy Evolution in Galaxy Groups and Clusters; A Comparison of External and Internal Heating
There may be enough energy in AGN to heat the gas at high redshifts, but it is unclear if this energy can be widely distributed in the intergalactic gas and not just concentrated near the AGN.
Entropy Evolution in Galaxy Groups and Clusters; A Comparison of External and Internal Heating
Here, we extend their analysis by including gas pressure which was ignored in their work, and study the stabilizing effect of the random component in the interstellar gas with finite pressure.
The Effect of the Random Magnetic Field Component on the Parker Instability
Although weak, the tension of the transverse component that is incurred by the vertical gas motions is strong enough to reinstate the gas.
The Effect of the Random Magnetic Field Component on the Parker Instability
This increases the phase space; the boundary is effectively given by κi > κi−1 − δ instead of the strict ordering κi > κi−1 in eq. (2) relevant in the DGLAP limit. (This has similarities with the van der Waals gas formula, where the gas molecules take up a fixed volume.
A Simple Model for the BFKL-DGLAP Transition in Deep Inelastic Scattering
In fact, only a small fraction of the low-density gas has reached densities corresponding to the warm stable phase (Fig. 7) (no gas at all reached that phase in runs DEN3 and DEN15).
The nonlinear development of the thermal instability in the atomic ISM and its interaction with random fluctuations
In summary, both the gas accreting onto the condensations at late times and the “unstable” gas in the presence of stable adiabatic fluctuations, are out of thermal equilibrium.
The nonlinear development of the thermal instability in the atomic ISM and its interaction with random fluctuations
One example is enough to characterize the problem. In fact if we idealize a free expansion o f a gas (the System) with intermediate equilibrium po ints , it is impossible to make the gas, the System, return to its init ial condit ion.
The Energy-Entropy Principle
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