ganglion

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n ganglion an encapsulated neural structure consisting of a collection of cell bodies or neurons
    • ***
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • Ganglion (Med) A globular, hard, indolent tumor, situated somewhere on a tendon, and commonly formed by the effusion of a viscid fluid into it; -- called also weeping sinew.
    • Ganglion (Anat) A mass or knot of nervous matter, including nerve cells, usually forming an enlargement in the course of a nerve.
    • Ganglion (Anat) A node, or gland in the lymphatic system; as, a lymphatic ganglion .
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n ganglion An enlargement in the course of a nerve, containing or consisting of a collection of ganglion-cells; any assembly of ganglion-cells. The nervous system of invertebrates generally, and the sympathetic nervous system of vertebrates, consists essentially of a chain or series of ganglia connected by commissures, giving off filaments in various directions, forming plexuses or networks around principal viscera, blood-vessels, and other important organs. Some of the larger sympathetic ganglia are also called plexuses; thus, the semilunar ganglia of the abdomen form the solar plexus. In the cerebrospinal nervous system of vertebrates, ganglia regularly occur on the posterior or sensory roots of the spinal nerves. There are likewise ganglia upon some of the motor or sensorimotor cranial nerves, as the vagus, fifth, and facial. All the masses of gray neurine in the brain are also ganglia, as the optic thalami, corpora quadrigemina, corpora striata, etc.; even the general mass of cortical gray matter, both of the cerebrum and of the cerebellum, constitutes a great ganglion. The principal ganglia have special names. See the phrases below.
    • n ganglion A knot or enlargement on a lymphatic; a lymphatic gland. See cut under lymphatic.—
    • n ganglion In pathology:
    • n ganglion An encysted enlargement in connection with the sheath of a tendon: called simple ganglion.
    • n ganglion Inflammation, with effusion into one or more sheaths of tendons: called diffuse ganglion.
    • n ganglion An enlarged bursa.
    • n ganglion In botany, the mycelium of certain fungals.
    • n ganglion The superior ganglion, or ganglion of the root of the pneumogastric nerve, in its passage through the jugular foramen.
    • n ganglion The lower ganglion, or ganglion of the trunk. Also vagus ganglion.
    • n ganglion Same as Gasserian ganglion.
    • n ganglion In cephalopods, same as stellate ganglion .
    • n ganglion In cephalopods, a large flat ganglion lying on the inner surface of the mouth, in front of the gill.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Ganglion gang′gli-on a tumour in the sheath of a tendon: an enlargement in the course of a nerve: any special centre of nervous action
    • ***

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L. ganglion, a sort of swelling or excrescence, a tumor under the skin, Gr. : cf. F. ganglion,
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
Gr.

Usage

In literature:

The sensory nerve fibres conveying these different impulses pass to the ganglionic cells of the posterior nerve roots.
"Manual of Surgery Volume Second: Extremities--Head--Neck. Sixth Edition." by Alexander Miles
Nervous power becomes impaired, reacting with evil effect upon the ganglionic centres and the brain.
"Brighter Britain! (Volume 1 of 2)" by William Delisle Hay
It has a ganglion, like the spinal nerves upon its posterior root.
"A Treatise on Anatomy, Physiology, and Hygiene (Revised Edition)" by Calvin Cutter
The letter bears two ganglion swellings, the buccal ganglia.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 6, Slice 2" by Various
First thoracic or infra-oesophageal ganglion.
"A Monograph on the Sub-class Cirripedia (Volume 1 of 2)" by Charles Darwin
Those masses of ganglions below and coming from all sides as they go over the pass of the ridge are association bundles.
"The Brain" by Alexander Blade
The nerve arises from the cerebral ganglion on each side and passes through the pedal ganglion.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 6" by Various
It gives rise to a nerve-ganglion mass, the prostomial ganglion.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 2, Slice 6" by Various
The posterior root is distinguished by possessing a ganglion of gray matter, and by a somewhat larger size.
"A Treatise on Physiology and Hygiene" by Joseph Chrisman Hutchison
He also demonstrated that no motor nerve ever passes through a ganglion.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 3, Slice 5" by Various
There are no specialized ganglia, but ganglion-cells are scattered uniformly along the nerve-cords.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 8, Slice 10" by Various
The clear location of the great nerve ganglion.
"Sense of Obligation" by Henry Maxwell Dempsey (AKA Harry Harrison)
Paris, this nerve ganglion!
"Socialism and the Social Movement in the 19th Century" by Werner Sombart
These three divisions subsequently form the supra-oesophageal ganglion or brain proper.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 13, Slice 4" by Various
He may not be able to excise a Gasserian ganglion, or know very much about the researches of Calmette or von Pircquet.
"The Corner of Harley Street" by Henry Bashford
The central ganglion of the Borough Road and its ray-like connections are marked out.
"Maps of Old London" by Anonymous
The ganglion-cells of Hydromedusae are generally very small.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 14, Slice 2" by Various
Scotland Yard, as we have said, is the brain or central ganglion which directs the system of metropolitan police.
"Curiosities of Civilization" by Andrew Wynter
It forms a continuation of the root rather than of the ganglion.
"The Works of Francis Maitland Balfour, Volume 1" by Francis Maitland Balfour
How many pairs of nerves are given off from each ganglion?
"Elementary Zoology, Second Edition" by Vernon L. Kellogg
***

In poetry:

The generations of the worm
Know not your loads piled on their soil;
Their knotted ganglions shall wax firm
Till your strong flagstones heave and toil.
"To Iron-Founders And Others" by Gordon Bottomley

In news:

He was in the late stages of corticobasal ganglionic degeneration.
Ganglion (GANG-lee-on) cysts are the most common type of soft tissue mass that form under your skin.
Most commonly, ganglions are seen on the backside of the wrist and fingers, but they can also develop on your shoulder, elbow, and knee.
Kikuchi S, Sato K Anatomic and radiographic study of the dorsal root ganglion .
Cerebellopontine angle (CPA) ganglionic hamartomas are rare.
Here we analyze visual signaling in populations of ganglion cells recorded from the isolated salamander retina .
Our in vitro patch-clamp recordings and two-photon calcium imaging show that direction-selective retinal ganglion cells (DSGCs) utilize orthograde dendritic spikes during physiological activity DSGCs signal the direction of image motion.
***

In science:

All these connect to the ganglion in another JCM-like model proposed earlier by Ramakrishna and Rajagopal . Outline of the method of solution: The method of solution involves obtaining the solutions to the Schrodinger equations associated with the Hamiltonians described in eqs. (2 and 3,).
Quantum Mechanical Basis of Vision
We obtain general analytical estimates for minimally safe bounds for an invasion threshold and then illustrate their validity by considering an example of host data for branching hosts (salamander retinal ganglion cells).
Complexity and anisotropy in host morphology make populations safer against epidemic outbreaks
For numerical illustration and concreteness, in this paper we use a set of N (N = 51) neurons (Fig. 1) corresponding to the salamander retinal ganglion cells (Ascoli, 2006), which are mostly planar, as typical representatives of complex branching structures.
Complexity and anisotropy in host morphology make populations safer against epidemic outbreaks
Non-linear rectification kij (t, ¯I opl In the next processing step, the potential V b kij ) is sub ject to a non-linear reckij (t, ¯I opl tification yielding the so-called ganglionic current I g kij ).
Streaming an image through the eye: The retina seen as a dithered scalable image coder
If we observe the instantaneous behavior of the ganglionic layer at different times tobs , we get a quasi-uniform scalar quantizer that refines in time.
Streaming an image through the eye: The retina seen as a dithered scalable image coder
The ganglionic and inner layers are inverted using look-up tables constructed off-line and the image is finally recovered by a direct reverse transform of the outer layers processing.
Streaming an image through the eye: The retina seen as a dithered scalable image coder
Here we remind the reader that the ganglion cells are modelled, in our coder, by LIF neurons that are dynamic quantizers.
Streaming an image through the eye: The retina seen as a dithered scalable image coder
Indeed the ganglionic layer evolves from a coarse to a fine quantizer.
Streaming an image through the eye: The retina seen as a dithered scalable image coder
So that, the ganglion cells will have different levels of progression at a given time tobs depending on the subband scale k .
Streaming an image through the eye: The retina seen as a dithered scalable image coder
Figure 8: Example of dither noise introduced at the input of the ganglionic layer.
Streaming an image through the eye: The retina seen as a dithered scalable image coder
Adding such a dither noise to the input of the ganglionic layer I r kij induces interesting features.
Streaming an image through the eye: The retina seen as a dithered scalable image coder
The dither noise is introduced at the input of the ganglionic layer.
Streaming an image through the eye: The retina seen as a dithered scalable image coder
The right column shows the evolution of the reconstruction ˜ftobs with increasing times tobs , in the case of addition of a dither noise to the input of the ganglionic layer.
Streaming an image through the eye: The retina seen as a dithered scalable image coder
The right image shows the reconstruction ˜ftobs in the case of addition of a dither noise to the input of the ganglionic layer.
Streaming an image through the eye: The retina seen as a dithered scalable image coder
How retinal microcircuits scale for ganglion cells of different size.
Streaming an image through the eye: The retina seen as a dithered scalable image coder
***