gallium

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n gallium a rare silvery (usually trivalent) metallic element; brittle at low temperatures but liquid above room temperature; occurs in trace amounts in bauxite and zinc ores
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • n Gallium (Chem) A rare metallic element, found combined in certain zinc ores. It is white, hard, and malleable, resembling aluminium, and remarkable for its low melting point (86° F., 30° C.). Symbol, Ga; at. wt., 69.9. Gallium is chiefly trivalent, resembling aluminium and indium. It was predicted with most of its properties, under the name eka-aluminium, by the Russian chemist Mendelyeev on the basis of the periodic law. This prediction was verified in its discovery (in 1875) by the French chemist Lecoq de Boisbaudran by its characteristic spectrum (two violet lines), in an examination of a zinc blende from the Pyrenees.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n gallium Chemical symbol, Ga; specific gravity, 5.935. A rare malleable metal, discovered by means of spectrum analysis in 1875 by M. Lecoq de Boisbaudran in the zinc-blende of Pierrefitte in the Pyrenees. It is of a grayish-white color and brilliant luster, and fuses at so low a point (30° C. or 86° F.) as to melt readily by the mere warmth of the hand. It has as yet been prepared only in small quantities. In its properties it is related to aluminium, and its spectrum consists of two violet lines, one well defined and eminently characteristic.
    • n gallium The discovery of this chemical element was peculiarly interesting, as furnishing striking evidence of the soundness of the theoretical views, as to the relations of the elements, which led Mendeléjeff in 1869 to predict the existence of such a substance and give a description of the properties it would be found to exhibit: his prediction required scarcely any correction when the element was actually discovered.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Gallium gal′i-um a rare malleable metal, grayish-white, brilliant in lustre.
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
NL.; perh. fr. L. Gallia, France

Usage

In literature:

GALLIUM (Plate XIII, 2).
"Occult Chemistry" by Annie Besant and Charles W. Leadbeater
Who, for instance, will find a use for gallium, the metal of France?
"Creative Chemistry" by Edwin E. Slosson
Give the derivation of the names of the following elements: thorium, gallium, selenium, uranium.
"An Elementary Study of Chemistry" by William McPherson
Oxygen was added to the solar ingredients by Runge and Paschen in 1896, gallium by Hartley and Ramage in 1899.
"A Popular History of Astronomy During the Nineteenth Century" by Agnes M. (Agnes Mary) Clerke
Dorn Starret, owner of a gallium mine on Ceres.
"Forget Me Nearly" by Floyd L. Wallace
The elements gallium and indium were discovered in blende.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 4, Slice 1" by Various
Gallium crystallizes in greyish-white octahedra which melt at 30.15 deg.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 11, Slice 4" by Various
Gallium discovered by Boisbaudran.
"The Progress of Invention in the Nineteenth Century." by Edward W. Byrn
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In news:

Nitronex has announced a +28-VDC, 100-W gallium-nitride ( GaN ) power transistor for WiMAX base station applications from 2.3 to 2.7 GHz.
The emerging market for Gallium Nitride (GaN) power semiconductors is forecast to grow from almost zero in 2011 to over $1 billion in 2021, according to a new report from IMS Research.
Gallium nitride power semiconductor market to exceed $1 billion by 2021.
Soitec and Sumitomo Electric announce major milestone in strategic joint development of engineered gallium nitride substrates.
Efficient Power Conversion Introduces Development Board for Systems Using Enhancement Mode Gallium Nitride FETs.
International Rectifier demonstrates their new Gallium Nitride (GaN) transistors and how they can shrink the size and parts count of an audio power amp design.
For high-power rF applications, aluminum-gallium- nitride (AlGaN)/GaN high-electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are predominantly fabricated on silicon or silicon-carbide substrates .
Unlike traditional transistors , which consist of silicon and germanium, the Illinois transistors use indium phosphide and indium gallium arsenide.
The basic structure of the latest triple-junction compound solar cell uses proprietary Sharp technology that enables efficient stacking of the three photo-absorption layers, with InGaAs (indium gallium arsenide) as the bottom layer.
Model TGA2576 is a gallium nitride (GaN) power amplifier developed by TriQuint Semiconductor for C-IED and electronic-warfare (EW) applications.
View our GaN Roundtable from June 6, 2012, where industry experts debated various claims about gallium nitride.
Discrete power transistors support RF and microwave large-signal applications with a variety of technologies, ranging from older silicon semiconductors to mixes of materials using gallium nitride.
Today¿s most powerful lasers are based on compounds such as gallium arsenide and indium phosphide.
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In science:

Due to commercial unavailability of quality cuts of some the strong candidates, such as gallium selenide (GaSe) and proustite (Ag3AsS3 ), we obtained instead a custom cut of silver thiogallate (AgGaS2 ) and a commercially mass-produced periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN, sold as Thorlabs OPO-3).
Single barium ion spectroscopy: light shifts, hyperfine structure, and progress on an optical frequency standard and atomic parity violation
Similarly the Gallium anomaly 4) depends on the assumed crosssection which could be questioned.
Perspectives in Neutrino Physics
The reactor anomaly and the Gallium anomaly do not really agree on the oscillation parameters that they point to: the ∆m2 values are compatible but the central values of sin2 2θ differ by about an order of magnitude, with Gallium favouring the larger angle.
Perspectives in Neutrino Physics
The reactor anomaly and the Gallium anomaly do not really agree on the oscillation parameters that they point to: the ∆m2 values are compatible but the central values of sin2 2θ differ by about an order of magnitude, with Gallium favouring the larger angle.
Concluding Talk: A Theorist Overview on Particle Physics
Both the reactor and gallium anomalies can be interpreted in terms of a phenomenon of electron neutrino disappearance driven by sterile neutrino oscillations.
Phenomenology of light sterile neutrinos: a brief review
Indeed, interpreted in this framework, the anomalous reactor and gallium ν(−) e -disappearance measurements point towards a non-zero value of the parameter |Ue4 |2 .
Phenomenology of light sterile neutrinos: a brief review
Here, we focus on the reactor and gallium anomalies, which taken alone are consistent with a non-zero admixture of the electron neutrino with new sterile species.
Phenomenology of light sterile neutrinos: a brief review
We do not combine the bound in Eq. (1) with the constraints coming from the gallium anomaly since they are not independent.
Phenomenology of light sterile neutrinos: a brief review
Indeed, a shift in the theoretical estimate of the cross-section νe +71Ga →71 Ge + e− , which is a critical issue for the gallium anomaly, would also modify the solar bound on θ14 (and θ13 ).
Phenomenology of light sterile neutrinos: a brief review
The gallium calibration measurements with intense 51Cr sources will provide very important tests of our understanding of how these experiments work; the calibration measurements will begin in about a year for both experiments.
Summary Talk: International Symposium on Neutrino Astrophysics, Takayama/Kamioka (10/'92)
What do the gallium experiments tell us about the fundamental pp neutrinos? Radiochemical experiments have only an energy threshold but no energy resolution.
Summary Talk: International Symposium on Neutrino Astrophysics, Takayama/Kamioka (10/'92)
What do we need to do to sharpen the test for the presence of pp neutrinos? The statistical errors must be reduced in the gallium experiments.
Summary Talk: International Symposium on Neutrino Astrophysics, Takayama/Kamioka (10/'92)
Moreover, the two gallium experiments are more than 2σ away from the standard model predictions.
Summary Talk: International Symposium on Neutrino Astrophysics, Takayama/Kamioka (10/'92)
The gallium experiments then fix (approximately) the MSW parameters that can describe all the observational results.
Summary Talk: International Symposium on Neutrino Astrophysics, Takayama/Kamioka (10/'92)
This is completely consistent with Kamiokande and Gallium results but not with 37C l results.
Solar and atmospheric neutrinos
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