gall

Definitions

  • 27. Nest of Osmia in a gall
    27. Nest of Osmia in a gall
  • WordNet 3.6
    • v gall irritate or vex "It galls me that we lost the suit"
    • v gall become or make sore by or as if by rubbing
    • n gall the trait of being rude and impertinent; inclined to take liberties
    • n gall a digestive juice secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder; aids in the digestion of fats
    • n gall a feeling of deep and bitter anger and ill-will
    • n gall abnormal swelling of plant tissue caused by insects or microorganisms or injury
    • n gall a skin sore caused by chafing
    • n gall an open sore on the back of a horse caused by ill-fitting or badly adjusted saddle
    • ***

Additional illustrations & photos:

Larva of Gall-midge Larva of Gall-midge

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: A women from Berlin Germany has had 3,110 gallstones taken out of her gall bladder
    • n Gall A wound in the skin made by rubbing.
    • n Gall (Zoöl) An excrescence of any form produced on any part of a plant by insects or their larvae. They are most commonly caused by small Hymenoptera and Diptera which puncture the bark and lay their eggs in the wounds. The larvae live within the galls. Some galls are due to aphids, mites, etc. See Gallnut.☞ The galls, or gallnuts, of commerce are produced by insects of the genus Cynips, chiefly on an oak (Quercus infectoria syn. Quercus Lusitanica) of Western Asia and Southern Europe. They contain much tannin, and are used in the manufacture of that article and for making ink and a black dye, as well as in medicine.
    • Gall Anything extremely bitter; bitterness; rancor. "He hath . . . compassed me with gall and travail.""Comedy diverted without gall ."
    • Gall Impudence; brazen assurance.
    • Gall (Physiol) The bitter, alkaline, viscid fluid found in the gall bladder, beneath the liver. It consists of the secretion of the liver, or bile, mixed with that of the mucous membrane of the gall bladder.
    • Gall The gall bladder.
    • Gall To fret and wear away by friction; to hurt or break the skin of by rubbing; to chafe; to injure the surface of by attrition; as, a saddle galls the back of a horse; to gall a mast or a cable. "I am loth to gall a new-healed wound."
    • Gall To fret; to vex; as, to be galled by sarcasm. "They that are most galled with my folly,
      They most must laugh."
    • v. t Gall (Dyeing) To impregnate with a decoction of gallnuts.
    • Gall To injure; to harass; to annoy; as, the troops were galled by the shot of the enemy. "In our wars against the French of old, we used to gall them with our longbows, at a greater distance than they could shoot their arrows."
    • v. i Gall To scoff; to jeer.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n gall The bitter secretion of the liver: same as bile, 1. See also ox-gall. In the authorized version of the Old Testament gall is used to translate two Hebrew words, one signifying animal gall, and the other a vegetable poison the nature of which is involved in uncertainty. In Turkey the gall of the carp is used as a green pigment and in staining paper.
    • n gall Hence—2. Bitterness of feeling; rancor; malignity; hate.
    • n gall The gall-bladder.
    • n gall [Cf. bile, 2.] Impudence; effrontery; cheek. [Local, slang.]
    • n gall The scum of melted glass.
    • n gall A sore on the skin, caused by fretting or rubbing; an excoriation.
    • n gall A fault, imperfection, or blemish. Halliwell. [Prov. Eng.]
    • n gall In stone- and marble-cutting, a hollow made in the surface of a slab by changing the direction of the cut.
    • n gall A spot where grass, corn, or trees have failed. Halliwell (spelled gaul).
    • n gall In the southern United States, a low spot, as near the mouth of a river, where the soil under the matted surface has been washed away, or has been so exhausted that nothing will grow on it. See bay-gall.
    • gall To fret and wear away, as the skin, by friction; excoriate; break the skin of by rubbing: as, a saddle galls the back of a horse.
    • gall To impair the surface of by rubbing; wear away: as, to gall a mast or a cable.
    • gall To fret; vex; irritate: as, to be galled by sarcasm.
    • gall To harass; distress: as, the troops were galled by the shot of the enemy.
    • gall To fret; be or become chafed.
    • gall To act in a galling manner; make galling or irritating remarks.
    • n gall A vegetable excrescence produced by the deposit of the egg of an insect in the bark or leaves of a plant, ordinarily due to the action of some virus deposited by the female along with the egg, but often to the irritation of the larva. Galls made by Cynipidæ are of the former kind; but some other hymenopters, as certain saw-flies, and many lepidopters, dipters, coleopters, and hemipters are also gall-makers. The galls of commerce are produced by a species of Cynips which deposits its eggs in the tender shoots of the Quercus Lusitanica (Q. infectoria), a species of oak abundant in Asia Minor, Syria, Persia, etc. Galls are inodorous, and have a nauseously bitter and astringent taste. They are nearly spherical, and vary from the size of a pea to that of a hazelnut. When good, they are of a blue, black, or deep-olive color. They are also termed nutgalls or gallnuts, and are known in commerce by the names of white, green, and blue. The two latter kinds are the best. The chief products of galls are tannin or gallotannic acid, of which the best galls yield from 60 to 70 per cent. Galls from other species of oak, as well as from other kinds of trees, are met with in commerce and are used for dyeing and tanning, as tamarisk-galls from Tamarix orientalis, Chinese galls from Rhus semialata, and Bokhara galls from various species of Pistacia. These galls are of very various forms and sizes.
    • n gall An excrescence on or under the skin of a mammal or a bird, produced by the puncture of an acarid or of an insect of the dipterous genus Œstrus. Encyc. Brit.
    • n gall A distortion in a plant caused by a species of parasitic fungus.
    • gall To impregnate with a decoction of galls.
    • n gall A long space without weft in a piece of cloth.
    • n gall A small silver coin of Cambodia, worth about fourpence.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Gall gawl the greenish-yellow fluid secreted from the liver, called bile: bitterness: malignity
    • n Gall gawl a light nut-like ball which certain insects produce on the oak-tree, used in dyeing—also Gall′-nut
    • v.t Gall to fret or hurt the skin by rubbing: to annoy: to enrage
    • v.i Gall (Shak.) to act in a galling manner
    • ***

Quotations

  • J. M. Synge
    J. M. Synge
    “Lord, confound this surly sister, blight her brow with blotch and blister, cramp her larynx, lung and liver, in her guts a galling give her.”
  • Charles Caleb Colton
    Charles%20Caleb%20Colton
    “Our income are like our shoes; if too small, they gall and pinch us; but if too large, they cause us to stumble and trip.”
  • William Penn
    William%20Penn
    “No pain, no palm; no thorns, no throne; no gall, no glory; no cross, no crown.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
OE. galle, gal, AS. gealla,; akin to D. gal, OS. & OHG. galla, Icel. gall, SW. galla, Dan. galde, L. fel, Gr. , and prob. to E. yellow,. √49. See Yellow, and cf. Choler

Usage

In literature:

It is obtained chiefly from the bark of trees; but it is found also in nut-galls, and in some other vegetables.
"Conversations on Chemistry, V. 1-2" by Jane Marcet
What good had it done him to taste it when it was bitter as gall?
"Jewish Children" by Sholem Naumovich Rabinovich
In two instances I have seen from thirty to fifty gall-stones voided after taking an oil vomit as below.
"Zoonomia, Vol. II" by Erasmus Darwin
DESTRUCTIVENESS, the 5th organ of Gall and 1st of Spurzheim, was located much too high and too far forward by Gall.
"Buchanan's Journal of Man, October 1887" by Various
Early maps have been found, one dating from the seventh century, being in possession of St. Gall monastery.
"History of Education" by Levi Seeley
These creatures had now found out a way of galling him to the very quick.
"Critical and Historical Essays, Volume III (of 3)" by Thomas Babington Macaulay
Aubrey says that the dedication of the well made him curious to try it with oak-galls, which turned the water purple.
"Highways and Byways in Surrey" by Eric Parker
Thy words at first were of honey and the honey-comb, but now are they as gall.
"The Buccaneer" by Mrs. S. C. Hall
In the South the menace of their presence was galling and increasing in intensity.
"Shadow and Light" by Mifflin Wistar Gibbs
Such are the Virgils of the Vatican, of St. Gall, and of Florence.
"The Wanderings and Homes of Manuscripts" by M. R. James
Gall., C. E. Moberly, Oxf.
"The Student's Companion to Latin Authors" by George Middleton
It was humiliating and galling.
"The Cryptogram" by James De Mille
They were falling before the galling fire, now given at short range.
"My Days and Nights on the Battle-Field" by Charles Carleton Coffin
I allude to the production of galls.
"The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication, Volume II (of 2)" by Charles Darwin
This was again galling to him.
"The Rainbow" by D. H. (David Herbert) Lawrence
Infuse in a gallon of rain or soft water, a pound of blue galls bruised, and keep it stirring for three weeks.
"The Cook and Housekeeper's Complete and Universal Dictionary; Including a System of Modern Cookery, in all Its Various Branches," by Mary Eaton
Gall narrates the case of a certain Petri, who manifested homicidal tendencies when excited by alcohol.
"Criminal Man" by Gina Lombroso-Ferrero
The law had been a saddle that galled his back through many a heavy year.
"Claim Number One" by George W. (George Washington) Ogden
It turned to gall in his mouth.
"Edelweiss" by Berthold Auerbach
Her happiness galled him, as he confessed to himself with shame.
"Years of Plenty" by Ivor Brown
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In poetry:

Weary pilgrim, take thy rest,
Thine has been a tiresome road;
Aching head and tortur'd breast,
Added to thy galling load.
"On The Death Of Elizabeth Scott" by David John Scott
Which pleasure now like poison turns
Their joy to heaviness;
Yea, like the gall of asps it burns,
And doth them sore oppress
"Of Hell And The Estate of Those Who Perish" by John Bunyan
Turned into gall
Are the sweet joys of childhood's sunny reign;
And memory is a torture, love a chain
That binds my life in thrall.
"Lagrimas" by John Hay
"One thrust of thine outrageous horn
Has gall'd the knight so sore,
That to the churchyard he is borne
To range our glens no more."
"The Battle of Sempach" by Sir Walter Scott
And sang the song of a nation's wrong--
Of the patriot's galling chain,
And the glad release that the angel, Peace,
Has given him again.
"Job Work" by James Whitcomb Riley
The song of liberty I've sung,
And joined the high triumphant strain,
When she unlocked the dungeon cells,
And broke Italia's galling chain.
"Retrospect of Song" by Janet Hamilton

In news:

He had recently been hospitalized with kidney and gall bladder problems.
Keyhole gardens, Oak leaf galls, Gabriel Valley Farms, Drying herbs.
Image1-Gary Galles: 'Income inequality' magnified by bad data.
No, the question is the exact identity of these solid marble galls.
Gall Parish held a special Veterans Mass at St Gall Cemetery on Sunday.
Roman Polanski's freedom -- and unmitigated gall.
GALLS—Tiny round galls that have appeared on oak trees are harmless, according to Michele Warmund, horticulture professor and University of Missouri Extension fruit specialist.
Happy Wanderer, John D Gall.
Jack Taylor's 138-point game was thrilling, galling at the same time .
Martha Gall November 26th, 2012.
It must gall HR departments everywhere.
Lindsay Taylor Gall, Meyersdale, and Mark Richard Bowman , Somerset, are announcing their engagement.
Miss Gall is the daughter of Anthony Gall and Sherri Gall, both of Meyersdale.
He has undergone six months of chemotherapy after the cancer was discovered while his gallbladder was being removed after a gall stone attack.
Steve Galles, manager of Agri-Partners, in Merrill, is quick to admit that brief pauses as for the photo above are few during the company's current fall fertilization application schedule.
***

In science:

We are also grateful to Jean-Fran¸cois Le Gall for precious comments and suggestions on a first version of this note.
Random laminations and multitype branching processes
Acknowledgments. I am deeply indebted to Jean-François Le Gall for suggesting me to study this model, for insightful discussions and for carefully reading the manuscript and making many useful suggestions.
Random stable laminations of the disk
Le Gall, Random recursive triangulations of the disk via fragmentation theory, Ann.
Random stable laminations of the disk
Le Gall , Probabilistic and fractal aspects of Lévy trees, Probab.
Random stable laminations of the disk
Perturbed Brownian motions are continuous processes which were introduced by Le Gall and Yor .
Internal DLA generated by cookie random walks on $\mathbb{Z}$
We will also mention the Lascar group GalL (T ) of a theory T .
Borel equivalence relations and Lascar strong types
There is a canonical surjective homomorphism π : GalL (T ) → GalK P (T ).
Borel equivalence relations and Lascar strong types
Gal0(T ) (as GalL (T ) itself ) can again be viewed in a robust manner as the quotient of a Polish space by a Kσ equivalence relation as we describe in Section 5. T is said to be G-compact when Gal0 (T ) is trivial.
Borel equivalence relations and Lascar strong types
Here we briefly consider the Lascar groups, GalL (T ), Gal0(T ), in the light of Borel cardinality issues.
Borel equivalence relations and Lascar strong types
In early papers, GalL (T ) has been described as Aut(C)/AutfL(C), where AutfL (C) is the subgroup of Aut(C) generated by the pointwise stabilizers of elementary (small if one wishes) substructures.
Borel equivalence relations and Lascar strong types
The next proposition tells us that the resulting “Borel cardinality” of GalL (T ) does not depend on the choice of M , N or the enumeration of N .
Borel equivalence relations and Lascar strong types
The above proposition allows us to define the Borel cardinality of GalL (T ) as the Borel cardinality of the relation EM , ¯n (on the space S ¯n (M )).
Borel equivalence relations and Lascar strong types
Remark 5.3 (i) In , Ziegler notes that for T the many sorted theory from Example 3.1 above, GalL (T ) is isomorphic (as a group) to the quotient of Qn Z/nZ by the subgroup of “bounded sequences”, namely what we cal led Γ/BΓ in Proposition 3.11.
Borel equivalence relations and Lascar strong types
One can show, by methods of Section 3, that in fact GalL (T ) ∼B Γ/BΓ (itself equivalent to ℓ∞ ).
Borel equivalence relations and Lascar strong types
In , it is observed (Proposition 3.3 there) that F induces an isomorphism between GalL (T h(N )) and (G∗/(G∗)000 ) ⋊ GalL (T h(M )), as well as between GalK P (T h(N )) and (G∗/(G∗∗)00 ) ⋊ GalK P (T h(M )).
Borel equivalence relations and Lascar strong types
***