gadolinium

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n gadolinium a ductile silvery-white ductile ferromagnetic trivalent metallic element of the rare earth group
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Only one of the 88 stable chemicals are named after a person gadolinium. It's named after Finnish chemist Johan Gadolin.
    • n Gadolinium (Chem) A rare earth metallic element of the Lanthanide series, with a characteristic spectrum, found associated with yttrium and other rare earth elements. Symbol, Gd; it has an atomic number of 64, an atomic weight of 157.25 (C=12.011), and a valence of +3.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n gadolinium A supposed new element found with yttrium in gadolinite.
    • n gadolinium It belongs to the same family as yttrium. Its oxid is white, and its salts are colorless: atomic weight about 156. It perhaps represents a mixture of more than a single element.
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
NL. See Gadolinite

Usage

In literature:

The planet produced gadolinium.
"Space Viking" by Henry Beam Piper
Gadolinium, discovery of, 219.
"Woman in Science" by John Augustine Zahm
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In news:

More Large Studies Vindicate Gadolinium Contrast.
Use of gadolinium as a contrast agent for digital subtraction angiography.
Gadolinium contrast media is typically used for its paramagnetic properties in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Tarik Ozumerzifon's research ultimately aims to reduce the number of heavy metal poisonings as well as related deaths by targeting gadolinium delivery to the tumor, minimizing the amount of gadolinium that must be administered.
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In science:

The values and error bars on η correspond to a statistics of 2.5 Megaton-Year data in Gadolinium loaded water detector.
On the Observability of Collective Flavor Oscillations in Diffuse Supernova Neutrino Background
We calculated the total predicted number of ¯νe events in water detectors, both with and without Gadolinium.
On the Observability of Collective Flavor Oscillations in Diffuse Supernova Neutrino Background
Both detectors will be based on a Gadolinium loaded liquid scintillator and use inverse β -decay and the delayed neutron capture signal.
Future neutrino oscillation facilities
In the range 10 –18 MeV, the event rates are nearly as large as the usual predictions based on supernova models, suggesting an imminent discovery of DSNB is well within the reach of current detectors, and especially promising if thresholds are reduced by the addition of gadolinium .
Neutrino Spectrum from SN 1987A and from Cosmic Supernovae
A gadolinium-enhanced SuperKamiokande should also be able to provide a measurement of the spectral shape [77, 92], providing further clues.
Neutrino Spectrum from SN 1987A and from Cosmic Supernovae
The analysis in suggests that this search may require depths similar to Super-Kamiokande even if one could get the enhancement in signal to background from gadolinium loading.
Report of the US long baseline neutrino experiment study
The scintillator is doped with 0.1% gadolinium.
The (3+2) Neutrino Mass Spectrum and Double Chooz
Doping the liquid scintillator with gadolinium substantially increases the neutron capture cross section as well as the visible energy produced in the form of gammas upon neutron capture.
Neutrino Experiments
Gadolinium (Gd) doping is necessary for a high rate of neutron capture, which constitutes the signal for the IBD events. A window in visible energy of 3 to 5 MeV is selected to reduce backgrounds from contaminants in the oil and cosmic-muon-induced isotopes.
Neutrino Experiments
Gentile, where they derived the ionization energy of an electron in the 3d orbit of gadolinium and uranium, in good agreement with the experimental values.
Ettore Majorana and his heritage seventy years later
The experimental setup consists of two identical 15-ton Gadolinium loaded liquid scintillator detectors located near and far from the reactor array to measure the deviations from the inverse square distance law.
Summary of the 3rd International Workshop on a Far Detector in Korea for the J-PARC Beam
Neon beams ranging from 105 to 125 MeV from the Hahn Meitner Institut Berlin VICKSI accelerator facility bombarded a gadolinium target.
Discovery of the Tungsten Isotopes
The observable O is a set of isotopic ratios that allow to reconstruct the average cross-sections for the nuclear network that involves the various isotopes of the samarium and gadolinium (this involves assumptions about the geometry of the reactor, its temperature that falls into X ).
Fundamental constants and tests of general relativity - Theoretical and cosmological considerations
The neutron may also be captured on another nucleus; in particular, the detector may be doped with some material with a high neutron capture cross section, such as gadolinium (Gd).
Supernova Neutrino Detection
Superparamagnetic iron oxides have been promoted by some as possible alternatives to gadolinium-based agents in patients at risk for NSF .
A Quantum Mechanical Review of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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