forgery

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n forgery criminal falsification by making or altering an instrument with intent to defraud
    • n forgery a copy that is represented as the original
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • Forgery That which is forged, fabricated, falsely devised, or counterfeited. "These are the forgeries of jealously.""The writings going under the name of Aristobulus were a forgery of the second century."
    • Forgery The act of forging metal into shape. "Useless the forgery Of brazen shield and spear."
    • Forgery The act of forging, fabricating, or producing falsely; esp., the crime of fraudulently making or altering a writing or signature purporting to be made by another; the false making or material alteration of or addition to a written instrument for the purpose of deceit and fraud; as, the forgery of a bond.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n forgery The act of forging or working metal into shape.
    • n forgery Invention; devising.
    • n forgery The act of fabricating or producing falsely; the making of a thing in imitation of another thing, as a legal document, commercial paper or coin, a literary production, a work of art, a natural object, etc., with a view to deceive, mislead, or defraud; specifically, the act of fraudulently making, counterfeiting, or altering any record, instrument, register, note, or the like, to the prejudice of the right of another: as, the forgery of a check or a bond. In criminal law It denotes (at common law) a false making of any instrument by which one person can become obligated to another (including every alteration of or addition to a true instrument), with criminal intent, for purposes of fraud and deceit; the making or altering a writing so as to make the alteration or the writing purport to be the act of some person whose act it is not; the false making of an instrument which purports to be that which it is not, as distinguished from an instrument which purports to be what it really is, but contains false statements. The definition is much enlarged by various statutes in different jurisdictions, under which many acts not originally forgery are punishable as such. See counterfeit, n., 2.
    • n forgery That which is forged, fabricated, falsely or fraudulently devised, or counterfeited; any instrument which fraudulently purports to be that which it is not.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • Forgery fraudulently making or altering any writing: that which is forged or counterfeited
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Quotations

  • Jonathan Gash
    Jonathan Gash
    “A bad forgery's the ultimate insult.”
  • James Fenton
    James Fenton
    “Imitation, if it is not forgery, is a fine thing. It stems from a generous impulse, and a realistic sense of what can and cannot be done.”
  • Morris Bender
    Morris Bender
    “A skeptic is a person who, when he sees the handwriting on the wall, claims it is a forgery.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
Cf. F. forgerie,
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
O. Fr. forge—L. fabricafaber, a workman.

Usage

In literature:

Those letters purported to have been written by me were forgeries.
"The Goose Girl" by Harold MacGrath
Could those papers have been forgeries?
"Hatchie, the Guardian Slave; or, The Heiress of Bellevue" by Warren T. Ashton
Though the letter was shown to be a forgery, yet it was not without influence.
"Our Foreigners" by Samuel P. Orth
You believe these letters forgeries?
"Varney the Vampire" by Thomas Preskett Prest
He suggested that the letters were forgeries.
"Uncle Silas" by J. S. LeFanu
By these he imposed upon his father and many others, but eventually confessed the forgery.
"English Literature, Considered as an Interpreter of English History" by Henry Coppee
With this he took the autographs on which his forgeries were based.
"Sevenoaks" by J. G. Holland
There was also rather more than a hint of his being suspected of forgery.
"Gladys, the Reaper" by Anne Beale
This was not the only forgery by which England was wont to back her claims.
"A Short History of Scotland" by Andrew Lang
Forgery is too common, nowadays, to go unpunished.
"The Gold Hunter's Adventures" by William H. Thomes
The forgery of its notes having been made a capital offence, the waste of life in consequence was severe.
"The Continental Monthly, Vol. IV. October, 1863, No. IV." by Various
They were nearly all forgeries.
"The Transvaal from Within" by J. P. Fitzpatrick
I, unfortunately, hold a warrant for the arrest of Mr. Adrien Leroy on a charge of forgery.
"Adrien Leroy" by Charles Garvice
Newall,' he cried, 'that MS. after all is a forgery.
"Masques & Phases" by Robert Ross
Under the influence of liquor he might commit assault, or even murder, but never forgery.
"Gordon Craig" by Randall Parrish
Mr. Hastings charges Nundcomar with two other forgeries.
"The Works of the Right Honourable Edmund Burke, Vol. X. (of 12)" by Edmund Burke
He looked at those poor forgeries of his name by Mr. Harley.
"The President" by Alfred Henry Lewis
Would he declare the letters to be forgeries?
"Historical Mysteries" by Andrew Lang
Was it another piece of the Swami's clever forgery?
"Jewel Weed" by Alice Ames Winter
The note from Nedda seemed to have been a forgery.
"The Pirates of Ersatz" by Murray Leinster
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In poetry:

Afraid they might be beaten
Before the bench of Time,
They turned a trick by forgery
And blackened his good name.
"Roger Casement" by William Butler Yeats
A perjurer stood ready
To prove their forgery true;
They gave it out to all the world,
And that is something new;
"Roger Casement" by William Butler Yeats
Quite dead, and looking it, and yet
All eagerness to show
The Social-Contract forgeries
By Chatterton - Rousseau -
"The Old Chimaeras. Old Receipts" by Robert Louis Stevenson
"Letters?" (hear them!) "You a judge of writing?
Ask the experts!--How they shake the head
O'er these characters, your friend's inditing--
Call them forgery from A to Z !
"Fears And Scruples" by Robert Browning
Believe me, then, I am not bad,
Though in my youth I had to trek
Because I happened to have had
Some difficulties with a cheque.
What forgery in some might be
Is absentmindedness in me!
"Bluebeard" by Harry Graham
"That babies don't commit such crimes as forgery is true,
But little sins develop, if you leave 'em to accrue;
And he who shuns all vices as successive seasons roll,
Should reap at length the benefit of so much self-control.
"Mister William" by William Schwenck Gilbert

In news:

Sardis woman gets 10 years for forgery .
Two men have been arrested for forgery , according to information received from the Camden Police Department.
OROVILLE — Two Marysville residents were arrested Thursday night after an attempted check forgery and a police chase in Oroville.
Police received a call at 7:19 pm about a check forgery at California Check Cashing on Oro Dam Boulevard, according to the Oroville Police Department.
Two people were arrested Wednesday on suspicion of forgery or counterfeiting of government identification cards and conspiracy, after a four-month investigation by the California Department of Justice.
Sims pleads guilty to second-degree forgery .
Homeless man facing forgery , car theft and drug charges.
A homeless man is facing a slew of charges in connection with three separate incidents involving forgery , the theft of two cars and drug possession, officials said.
Alan McDonagh pleaded guilty in January to a misdemeanor forgery charge in Grand Forks County and was sentenced to community service and probation.
Crime Boise Police Bust Woman for Meth Possession, Man for Check Forgery .
Natchitoches woman arrested on Forgery Charges.
Natchitoches Woman Arrested for Forgery , UPDATE.
WATSONTOWN — A borough woman is on the run from police with her boyfriend and 2-year-old child after being charged with 40 felonies that include forgery , identity theft, access device fraud and theft, police said.
Murder prosecution rests on forgery claim.
Jesus' Wife Text a " Forgery ".
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In science:

Menezes has pointed out to us that in it is shown that using 2 as a generator for certain discrete logarithm based signature schemes is vulnerable to forgeries, whereas in it is shown that using a random generator in these schemes is provably secure (this is summarized in ).
Fast generators for the Diffie-Hellman key agreement protocol and malicious standards
In this case, the test HDRsignature output by A (and thus F ) is clearly a successful forgery against OAKE-HDR.
A New Family of Practical Non-Malleable Diffie-Hellman Protocols
Putting all together, we get that { ˆA, A, X0 , Y0 } did not appear in any of the HDR-signatures issued by ˆB , and thus the test HDR-signature output by F is a successful forgery against OAKE-HDR.
A New Family of Practical Non-Malleable Diffie-Hellman Protocols
This implies that, in Case-3, the values { ˆA, A, X0 , Y0} also did not appear in any one of the responses from the signing oracle ˆB , and thus the test HDR-signature output by F is a successful forgery against OAKE-HDR.
A New Family of Practical Non-Malleable Diffie-Hellman Protocols
Intuition behind the proof is the fact that if the prefix of m 6= id, then S¬id (sk ,m) = S (sk ,m) which is of no help to the adversary as any successful forgery must be prefixed with id and all oracle queries to S¬id must be prefixed with id′ 6= id.
A New Look at Composition of Authenticated Byzantine Generals
This means that with probability (1 − η) · ((1 − κ) − t1 ), the adversary can output a forgery.
Inverse problems in approximate uniform generation
During this transmission if A finds an x′ ∋ h(x′ ) = h(x), then (x′ , y = EK (h(x))) is a valid forgery.
A Hash of Hash Functions
Finally, suppose that A finds two distinct x, x′ ∋ h(x) = h(x′ ) and persuades S to sign h(x), then (x′ , y = EK (h(x))) is again a valid forgery.
A Hash of Hash Functions
Thus, a forgery of the modified scheme must be due to Item (2), which yields a breaking of the original scheme.
The Random Oracle Methodology, Revisited
Formally, let AR be an adversary who mounts an adaptive chosen message attack on SR , and whose success probability in obtaining an existential forgery (in the Random Oracle Model) is ǫfrg = ǫfrg (k).
The Random Oracle Methodology, Revisited
Denote by REL the event in which during an execution of AR , it hands out a message m for which (m, O(m)) ∈ R (either as a query to the signer during the chosen message attack, or as the message for which it found a forgery at the end), and let ǫrel = ǫrel (k) be the probability of that event.
The Random Oracle Methodology, Revisited
Hence the probability that AR succeeds in obtaining an existential forgery against S is at least ǫfrg − ǫrel .
The Random Oracle Methodology, Revisited
Since ǫrel is negligible, and ǫfrg is not, then AR ’s probability of obtaining an existential forgery against S is also not negligible, contradicting the assumed security of S .
The Random Oracle Methodology, Revisited
Hence, the adversary achieves existential forgery (of S ′ RF ) under key-only attack.
The Random Oracle Methodology, Revisited
Alternatively, the adversary can ask the legitimate signer for a signature on s, hence obtaining the secret signing-key (i.e., total forgery).
The Random Oracle Methodology, Revisited
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