fern

Definitions

  • Detail of the Fern Stand
    Detail of the Fern Stand
  • WordNet 3.6
    • n fern any of numerous flowerless and seedless vascular plants having true roots from a rhizome and fronds that uncurl upward; reproduce by spores
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Sigmund Freud had a morbid fear of ferns
    • n Fern fẽrn (Bot) An order of cryptogamous plants, the Filices, which have their fructification on the back of the fronds or leaves. They are usually found in humid soil, sometimes grow epiphytically on trees, and in tropical climates often attain a gigantic size.☞ The plants are asexual, and bear clustered sporangia, containing minute spores, which germinate and form prothalli, on which are borne the true organs of reproduction. The brake or bracken, the maidenhair, and the polypody are all well known ferns.
    • a Fern Ancient; old. Obs “Pilgrimages to . . . ferne halwes.” [saints].
    • adv Fern Long ago.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n fern One of a large group of vascular cryptogamous plants, constituting the natural order Filices. They are herbaceous, rarely shrubby or arborescent plants, sometimes with long creeping rhizomes. But in many cases the rootstock or caudex is erect, when the species is called a tree-fern. The fructification, which is asexual, consists of spores produced in sporangia upon the backs or margins of the fronds. The sporangia in most genera are collected in definite clusters (sori), and these are usually covered by a special covering membrane, or one formed from the margin of the frond, called an indusium. Each sporangium is formed from a single epidermal cell. In the largest suborder, the Polypodiaceœ, the sporangia are stalked and provided with a vertical, many-jointed ring, which ruptures at maturity, allowing the escape of the spores. In the other suborders the ring is leas perfectly developed, or wanting. The spores in germination produce a green prothallium upon the surface of the soil, and upon the under surface of the prothallium antheridia and archegonia are monœciously produced. After fertilization the germ-cell of the archegonium develops into a frond-bearing plant. About 2,500 species of ferns are known. They are found all over the world, but abound in humid temperate and tropical regions. Great Britain has about 50, temperate North America about 160, India about 600. Ferns are very abundant as fossil plants. The earliest known forms occur in Devonian rocks, and their remains are very common in connection with coal of the Carboniferous period. Plants of the related group Ophioglos-saceæ also are called ferns.
    • fern Ancient; old; former; past; previous.
    • fern Distant; remote; far off.
    • fern Long ago; long before.
    • n fern In Australia, Ophioderma pendula.
    • n fern The royal fern, Osmunda regalis, which grows in low, wet situations and is thus associated popularly with snakes. See Osmunda.
    • n fern In Australia, Grammitis australis, a small species with simple leaves.
    • n fern Same as floating-fern. See Ceratopteris.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Fern fern one of the beautiful class of higher or vascular cryptogamous plants—the natural order Filices
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
AS. fearn,; akin to D. varen, G. farn, farn,kraut; cf. Skr. parṇa, wing, feather, leaf, sort of plant, or Lith. papartis, fern
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
A.S. fearn; Ger. farn.

Usage

In literature:

I hold it to be so, as much as the seed of a fern or of an oak.
"Fragments of science, V. 1-2" by John Tyndall
They broke the little fern from its slender stalk, and burying it deep in soft moist clay, hid it safely away.
"Journeys Through Bookland, Vol. 10" by Charles Herbert Sylvester
Alice Fern brought it to him from Italy.
"Molly Brown's Senior Days" by Nell Speed
Four ships had been fitted for sea at Plymouth by Sir John Ferne, Laurence Keymis, Wollaston, and Chudleigh.
"Sir Walter Ralegh" by William Stebbing
You should come down to Newton and see our ferns.
"Ralph the Heir" by Anthony Trollope
By ten o'clock in the morning we had crossed some rising ground, and were passing through a narrow gorge carpeted with ferns.
"Adventures of a Young Naturalist" by Lucien Biart
Fit up with ferns, grass, and golden lichens on the points, or in the hollows.
"Practical Taxidermy" by Montagu Browne
I'm a fern-gatherer, that's wot I am.
"A Son of Hagar" by Sir Hall Caine
Ah, there were the Hampshire ferns on the steep green banks!
"Vixen, Volume III." by M. E. Braddon
Miss Fern's voice was reasonably clear.
"A Black Adonis" by Linn Boyd Porter
As might be expected, in the steamy, dripping atmosphere ferns are a predominating feature in the vegetation.
"The Heart of Nature" by Francis Younghusband
Sometimes leaves and the dried bracken-fern are used for the manufacture of composts.
"Manures and the principles of manuring" by Charles Morton Aikman
Then, far away among the trees, clear for a moment, then hidden, then visible knee-deep in ferns, then gone again, ran a man.
"Tales of Space and Time" by Herbert George Wells
His mocking ribald gaze was upon Ferne Yarnell.
"Brand Blotters" by William MacLeod Raine
Under the shade of a large tree-fern a man is lying asleep.
"The Sign of the Spider" by Bertram Mitford
She caught the hum of happy insects and the moist sweet odor of growing ferns, then heard another rush and tumble.
"Reels and Spindles" by Evelyn Raymond
The hut was square, and from roof to floor was lined inside with ferns.
"Nobody's Girl" by Hector Malot
Trees came out of the ground, huge fern-like plants with crimson scaled trunks.
"The People of the Crater" by Andrew North
On her writing-table she had always a vase of fresh flowers, and another on her dressing-table, and a jar of tall ferns in the grate.
"Anxious Audrey" by Mabel Quiller-Couch
If you cut the stalk of a brake fern low down, in September, you find a spreading oak tree.
"What Shall We Do Now?: Five Hundred Games and Pastimes" by Dorothy Canfield Fisher
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In poetry:

The smell o' the simmer hills,
Thyme and hinny and heather,
Jeniper, birk and fern,
Rose in the lown June weather.
""On Leave"" by John Buchan
And over moss and moorland,
They swoop and wheel and sing,
Till the very ferns beside me
Begin to quiver and swing.
"A Whiff Of Nature" by Alexander Anderson
The winds so sweet with birch and fern
A sweeter memory blow;
And there in spring the veeries sing
The song of long ago.
"My Playmate" by John Greenleaf Whittier
Her true love shot a mighty hart
Among the standing rye,
When on him leapt that keeper old
From the fern where he did lie.
"A New Forest Ballad" by Charles Kingsley
There all things shone with paler sheen:
More softly shimmered
The fern-fronds, and with softer green
The myrtles glimmered:
"The River Maiden" by Victor James Daley
Mourning ferns, pray tell me why
Shook you with that passing sigh?
Is it that you chanced to spy
Something in the Abbot's eye?
"The Monk's Walk" by Paul Laurence Dunbar

In news:

Fern Hutchison, 78, died Sept 27, 2012, at her home.
ARKWOOD, Fern Louise, 92, of Rogers City, formerly of Millersburg died Tuesday, Sept 25, 2012, at Alpena Regional Medical Center.
Graveside funeral service for Hazel Fern Keith, 76, Lawton, will be 2 pm Saturday in the Letitia Cemetery, east of Lawton, with the Rev.
Some of Fern 's favorite times were spent at the cabin on Lake Manuella.
Unlike more evolved ferns , the hand fern 's prothallus (which houses the plant's sex organs) lacks the ability to preform photosynthesis.
Betty Fern Schorzman, age 80, of Jasper, passed away Friday, Sept 7, 2012 at Truman Healthcare Center in Lamar following a long illness.
2 closed near Fern Bluff due to crash.
Both directions of US 2 near Fern Bluff between Monroe and Sultan were closed Tuesday morning after another crash.
Mark Price, George Fern Co. WE WILL MISS YOU, MARK.
One person was rushed to the hospital after getting struck by a train near SEPTA's Fern Rock station.
Juanita Fern Hill, 91, of Fultonham, formerly of Crooksville, passed away at 10:12 am Thursday, August 30, 2012 at Genesis Good Samaritan emergency room.
Paulena " Fern " Gilbert passed away in Hutchinson on August 25, 2012.
A woman who has 40 years' experience in baking and cake decorating is teaching classes on those topics at the Fern Prairie Community Grange .
He was born in Bonnie, on Nov 13, 1925, to Fern Locher Hale and Albert Hale .
Night stalkers flock to Alabama's Fern Cave National Wildlife Refuge for the winter.
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In science:

Furthermore, by using additive scores we can move from a Bayesian legacy of Random ferns to a ensemble of classifiers language — in this view we have a random subspace battery of classifiers combined by mean voting.
Random ferns method implementation for the general-purpose machine learning
Error estimate While each fern was build only using its in-bag objects, one can use the OOB subset to reliably test its classification performance.
Random ferns method implementation for the general-purpose machine learning
For each of the testing sets, I have built 10 Random ferns models for each of the depths in range [1; 15] and number of ferns equal to 5000 and collected the OOB error approximations.
Random ferns method implementation for the general-purpose machine learning
It is also well serves as an optimisation target for the fern depth selection — only in case of the Sonar data the naïve selection of the depth giving minimal OOB error led to a suboptimal final classifier, however one should note that the minimum was not significant in this case.
Random ferns method implementation for the general-purpose machine learning
Figure 1: Attribute importance for DNA data, generated by Random ferns (top) and, for comparison, by Random forest (bottom).
Random ferns method implementation for the general-purpose machine learning
For both of this sets, I have calculated the importance measure using 1000 ferns of a depth 10.
Random ferns method implementation for the general-purpose machine learning
Qualitative di(cid:27)erence comes form the completely di(cid:27)erent formulations of both measures and possibly the higher sensitivity of ferns resulting from its fully stochastic construction.
Random ferns method implementation for the general-purpose machine learning
Figure 2: Importance measure for Sonar data, generated by Random ferns (top right ) and, for comparison, by Random forest (bottom right ).
Random ferns method implementation for the general-purpose machine learning
The results show that the usage of rFerns may result is significant speedups in certain applications; best speedups are achieved for the sets with larger number of objects, which is caused by the fact that Random ferns’ training time scales linearly with the number of objects, while Random forest ∼ N log N.
Random ferns method implementation for the general-purpose machine learning
Also the importance can be calculated significantly faster by rFerns than by randomForest, and the gain increases with the size of the set. rFerns is least e(cid:27)ective for sets which require large depths of the fern — in case of Vowel and Vehicle sets it was even slower than Random forest.
Random ferns method implementation for the general-purpose machine learning
However, one should note that while the complexity of Random ferns ∼ 2D , its accuracy usually decreases much less dramatically when decreasing D from its optimal value — this way one may expect an e(cid:27)ective trade-o(cid:27) between speed and accuracy.
Random ferns method implementation for the general-purpose machine learning
In this paper, I have presented rFerns, a general-purpose implementation of the Random ferns classifier.
Random ferns method implementation for the general-purpose machine learning
Image Classification using Random Forests and Ferns.
Random ferns method implementation for the general-purpose machine learning
While UCT and its successors have been devised specifically for MDPs, some of these algorithms are also successfully used in partially observable and adversarial settings (Gelly & Silver, 2011; Sturtevant, 2008; Bjarnason, Fern, & Tadepalli, 2009; Balla & Fern, 2009; Eyerich, Keller, & Helmert, 2010).
Simple Regret Optimization in Online Planning for Markov Decision Processes
Bjarnason, R., Fern, A., & Tadepalli, P. (2009).
Simple Regret Optimization in Online Planning for Markov Decision Processes
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