exfoliate

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • v exfoliate grow by producing or unfolding leaves "plants exfoliate"
    • v exfoliate come off in a very thin piece
    • v exfoliate remove the surface, in scales or laminae
    • v exfoliate cast off in scales, laminae, or splinters
    • v exfoliate spread by opening the leaves of
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • v. t Exfoliate To remove scales, laminæ, or splinters from the surface of.
    • Exfoliate To separate and come off in scales or laminæ, as pieces of carious bone or of bark.
    • Exfoliate (Min) To split into scales, especially to become converted into scales at the result of heat or decomposition.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • exfoliate To throw off scales or flakes; peel off in thin fragments; desquamate: as, the exfoliating bark of a tree.
    • exfoliate Specifically In surgery, to separate and come off in scales, as carious bone.
    • exfoliate In mineralogy, to split into scales; especially, to become scaly at the surface in consequence of heat or decomposition: as, vermiculite exfoliates before the blowpipe.
    • exfoliate To scale; free from scales or splinters.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • v.i., v.t Exfoliate eks-fō′li-āt to come off, or send off, in scales
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L. exfoliare, to strip of leaves; ex, out, from + folium, leaf
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
L. exfoliāre, -ātumex, off, folium, a leaf.

Usage

In literature:

He propounded strange phrases about them, he exfoliated and wagged about novel and incredible ideas.
"Tono Bungay" by H. G. Wells
No exfoliation of bone occurred.
"Anomalies and Curiosities of Medicine" by George M. Gould
An exfoliated myrtle crown, that is all!
"The Daughter of an Empress" by Louise Muhlbach
But from the analogy of the appearance I shall retain the more common word and call it exfoliation.
"Over Prairie Trails" by Frederick Philip Grove
Where unworn by contact with the ground, the horn of the sole is shed by a process of exfoliation.
"Diseases of the Horse's Foot" by Harry Caulton Reeks
Exfoliates and becomes arborescent.
"A System of Instruction in the Practical Use of the Blowpipe" by Anonymous
This is found in the grass, sadly mutilated, but can be recognised by the stumps of the branches which once exfoliated into its circular head.
"The Book-Hunter" by John Hill Burton
And fetishism exfoliated, or peeled off from the religious organism.
"The Idea of God in Early Religions" by F. B. Jevons
Bark exfoliating in large scales, leaving parti-colored areas.
"The Genus Pinus" by George Russell Shaw
Exfoliation was produced, followed by bony union.
"North American Medical and Surgical Journal, Vol. 2, No. 3, July, 1826" by Various
Increased activity of the mucous membrane, kidneys and skin, which becomes moist and oily, sometimes exfoliation of the epidermis.
"New, Old, and Forgotten Remedies: Papers by Many Writers" by Various
The urine contained a trace of albumen, the rash in due time faded, and the epidermis exfoliated.
"A System of Practical Medicine by American Authors, Vol. I" by Various
Another sufferer came to Graefenberg, with an exfoliation in the corner of the eye.
"Every Man his own Doctor" by R. T. Claridge
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In news:

That seems to be the question posed by the men's facial scrubs I've been testing lately, like Kyoku for Men's Exfoliating Facial Scrub with volcanic ash, rice bran, and ground walnut shells.
The Coach's Next Play: Exfoliate.
Pedicure tips and tricks, how to pamper your feet, including a foot rub, foot wax and exfoliation.
Exfoliate and luxuriate at possibly half the rate during Palm Springs Desert Resort Cities Spa & Salon Month.
The spa at Conrad Miami offers the Divine Chocolate & Champagne Pedicure , which includes a mimosa champagne sugar scrub to cleanse and exfoliate followed by a chocolate masque.
Kiwi Cleansing Scrub Use this scrub twice a week to exfoliate dead skin and moisturize.
It smells a little like your are scrubbing with pumpkin pie, which may make your stomach growl, but it exfoliates like a dream.
Microcrystalline cellulose, vaccinium myrtillus fruit extract, orange extract, and lemon extract (exfoliators).
Exfoliates and hydrates dull, dry skin.
Salicylic acid and ammonium lactate (exfoliate).
Lipo-hydroxy acid (exfoliates and improves skin texture and tone).
Recently, I've been wanting to buy an exfoliating face scrub .
Are you afraid of exfoliating your skin.
Beauty Buff knows all about organic local exfoliators.
The formula boasts the same sophisticated scent of Balenciaga's violet-based eau de parfum-and a just-right grainy-ness that gently exfoliates flaky, dry skin.
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In science:

Within an hour of cleaning, flakes of graphene were deposited using the mechanical exfoliation technique2 then located in an optical microscope.
Rippled Graphene in an In-Plane Magnetic Field: Effects of a Random Vector Potential
The graphene sheets are made by mechanical exfoliation.
Simple graphene chemiresistors as pH sensors: fabrication and characterization
The energy scale of the disorder in our device can be estimated from the corresponding range of Fermi energy (in monolayer graphene) ∆EF = ¯hνF where α is the side-gate capacitance per unit area, and νF = 106 ms−1 is the Fermi velocity56 . ∆EF ≈ 60 meV is typical for exfoliated GNRs on SiO2 substrates.
Gigahertz quantized charge pumping in graphene quantum dots
Our device is fabricated from a graphene flake obtained by mechanical exfoliation of natural graphite onto a Si substrate capped with a 300 nm thick SiO2 layer.
Gigahertz quantized charge pumping in graphene quantum dots
Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide.
Mechanical Properties of Graphene Papers
It is also interesting to note that for exfoliated graphene, the Friedel oscillations corresponding to intra-nodal scattering seem to decay as 1/r , and not as 1/r2 , which may mean that some internal symmetry-breaking mechanism is at work in this system.
The local density of states in the presence of impurity scattering in graphene at high magnetic field
This issue is of particular importance for understanding why the QHE arises in exfoliated, but not in epitaxial graphene, despite the presence of Landau levels (LL’s) in both their spectra.
The local density of states in the presence of impurity scattering in graphene at high magnetic field
In particular it would be interesting to test whether the quasiparticles in epitaxial graphene are indeed described by typical quantumHall wavefunctions, and if so, whether it is possible to establish the nature of disorder in both epitaxial and in exfoliated graphene.
The local density of states in the presence of impurity scattering in graphene at high magnetic field
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