evaporation

Definitions

• WordNet 3.6
• n evaporation the process of extracting moisture
• n evaporation the process of becoming a vapor
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
• Interesting fact: Each day the sun causes about one trillion tons of water to evaporate
• Evaporation (Steam Engine) See Vaporization.
• Evaporation That which is evaporated; vapor.
• Evaporation The process by which any substance is converted from a liquid state into, and carried off in, vapor; as, the evaporation of water, of ether, of camphor.
• Evaporation The transformation of a portion of a fluid into vapor, in order to obtain the fixed matter contained in it in a state of greater consistence.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
• Interesting fact: Dry ice does not melt, it evaporates.
• n evaporation The act of resolving or the state of being resolved into vapor; the conversion of a solid or liquid by heat into vapor, fumes, or steam; vaporization. The process of evaporation is constantly going on at the surface of the earth, but principally at the surface of the sea and other bodies of water. The vapor thus formed, being specifically lighter than atmospheric air, rises to considerable heights above the earth's surface, and afterward, by a partial condensation, forms clouds, and finally descends in rain. The effect of evaporation is to reduce the temperature of the evaporating surface, and the evaporation of certain volatile liquids, such as ether, produces an intense degree of cold. Evaporation by direct heat (boiling down) is often practised on fluids, especially in pharmacy and cookery, in order to reduce them to a denser consistence, or to obtain in a dry and separate state the fixed matters contained in them.
• n evaporation The matter evaporated or exhaled; vapor.
• n evaporation In algebra, the disappearance of a solution of a system of equations by passing off to infinity. Thus, the solution of the two equations x—ky = a and x—y = b, which disappears when k = 1, is said to pass off by evaporation.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
• Interesting fact: The official definition of a desert is any land that where more water evaporates than is acquired through precipitation.
• n Evaporation act of evaporating or passing off in steam or gas: the process by which a substance changes into the state of vapour
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Quotations

• John Keats
“The excellency of every art is its intensity, capable of making all disagreeable evaporate.”
• Jack Canfield
“Most fears cannot withstand the test of careful scrutiny and analysis. When we expose our fears to the light of thoughtful examination they usually just evaporate.”
• Albert Schweitzer
“Constant kindness can accomplish much. As the sun makes ice melt, kindness causes misunderstanding, mistrust, and hostility to evaporate.”
• Franz Kafka
“Every revolution evaporates and leaves behind only the slime of a new bureaucracy.”
• Sallust
“Those most moved to tears by every word of a preacher are generally weak and a rascal when the feelings evaporate.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L. evaporatio,: cf. F. évaporation,
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
L. e, off, vaporāre, -ātumvapor, vapour.

Usage

In literature:

But if we evaporate sea-water down to dryness all these are left in a mix together and it is hard to sort them out.
"Creative Chemistry" by Edwin E. Slosson
This will prevent the delicate aroma from evaporating.
"Mrs. Wilson's Cook Book" by Mary A. Wilson
Then the colonel's rare birds began to evaporate in real earnest.
"The Way of the Wild" by F. St. Mars
The blackening of the lamp bulbs was due to the evaporation of tungsten from the filament.
"Artificial Light" by M. Luckiesh
After the moisture is evaporated, the paper should be again wetted if required.
"French Polishing and Enamelling" by Richard Bitmead
Then there are evaporators for evaporating them.
"Trees, Fruits and Flowers of Minnesota, 1916" by Various
Without carbon we should evaporate or flow away and escape.
"The Breath of Life" by John Burroughs
Evaporate a portion of the water to one third of its bulk.
"A Treatise on Adulterations of Food, and Culinary Poisons" by Fredrick Accum
The solvent quickly evaporates, leaving a delicate film of rubber, which holds the glass tightly in place.
"Scientific American, Volume XXXVI., No. 8, February 24, 1877" by Various
There were not plants enough to take up and evaporate the large amount of water which fell during the wet season.
"Talks on Manures" by Joseph Harris
But for efficient moistening of the air, either a very large evaporating-surface or steam jets are required.
"How to Live" by Irving Fisher and Eugene Fisk
The felt cover of the canteen absorbed the drip, which evaporated.
"Overland Red" by Henry Herbert Knibbs
The cost of evaporation is usually stated as the cost of fuel required to evaporate 1,000 pounds of water from and at 212 deg.
"Engineering Bulletin No 1: Boiler and Furnace Testing" by Rufus T. Strohm
If the moisture is evaporated, the fruits will keep almost indefinitely.
"Ontario Teachers' Manuals: Household Science in Rural Schools" by Ministry of Education Ontario
Cold or evaporating lotions to the head are of service, but unless they can be continuously applied, they do harm.
"The Dog" by Dinks, Mayhew, and Hutchinson
They are very abundant in Cheshire and Worcestershire, and culinary salt is obtained from them by mere evaporation.
"Principles of Geology" by Charles Lyell
It slowly evaporates, leaving a thin crust of animal and vegetable matter.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 2, Slice 7" by Various
During this process the meat loses one-fourth of its weight, but the loss is almost wholly water, evaporated by the heat.
"A Treatise on Physiology and Hygiene" by Joseph Chrisman Hutchison
Separation of salt on evaporation, 130.
"The Phase Rule and Its Applications" by Alexander Findlay
To refine the salt it is placed in river water and boiled, and again evaporated.
"De Re Metallica" by Georgius Agricola
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In poetry:

And seen my strangeness evaporate,
Blue dew from dangerous skin.
Will they hate me,
These women who only scurry,
Whose news is the open cherry, the open clover?
"Stings" by Sylvia Plath
She will never close her eyes
And she does not let me sleep
And her dreams in the bright day
Make the suns evaporate
And me laugh cry and laugh
Speak when I have nothing to say
"Lady Love" by Paul Eluard
Beautifu sun that rises, his work not forgotten,
And completes it, most beautifully in summer, when a day
Evaporates on the coast, and effortlessly mirrored the sails
Pass through your sight, till you tire and cut short the last.
"To The Sun" by Ingeborg Bachmann

In news:

As the freezer compartment temperature drops, warm air and moisture from the product, as well as other areas, are pulled into the evaporator compartment.
Changes in the evaporation rate of tear film after digital expression of meibomian glands in patients with and without dry eye.
Focus evaporates in ' Goya 's Ghosts.
Aerial view of the evaporation ponds adjacent to the Great Salt Lake GSL Minerals wants to add more ponds.
Gilbert Futrell kept a keen eye focused on his gurgling evaporator pan.
New Test Method for Evaporating Residue of Naphthalene .
This test method covers the determination of the evaporation of naphthalene .
On June 3, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued a notice of noncompliance for three manufacturers of evaporative coils: Summit Manufacturing, Aspen Manufacturing, and Advanced Distributor Products (ADP).
"They could barely discuss the plan between themselves, as if, exposed to light and air, it might evaporate," O'Nan writes.
Whose chances of making the team pretty much evaporated with the signings of Raul Ibanez and Eric Chavez -- was held out of the workout today with lower back pain.
Whatever market existed for half-million-dollar downtown condos evaporated in the recession, but by then the Roberts had already started building.
Wealth and the American Dream evaporate in a poof .
To date, more than 9,600 barrels of oil/water mixture has been recovered, evaporated or dispersed naturally of the 11,000 barrels spilled.
Faith Cathcart/The Oregonian Facebook adopted an unusual strategy for keeping its Prineville computers chilly, taking advantage of the region's dry air to deploy an evaporative cooling system that uses less energy.
1973 Chevy C10 Buildup Evaporator And Blower Motor.
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In science:

This additional mass is provided by a (subsonic) ﬂow of nebular gas heated (‘evaporated’) at the conduction front (cf.
The evolution of planetary nebulae. V. The diffuse X-ray emission
Although the amount of mass ‘evaporated’ from the cold nebular gas exceeds by far the mass injected into the bubble by the stellar wind, it can be totally neglected for the mass budget of the PN proper (see Sect. 3.3).
The evolution of planetary nebulae. V. The diffuse X-ray emission
One sees that the ‘evaporated’ nebular matter soon exceeds the matter blown into the bubble by the stellar wind.
The evolution of planetary nebulae. V. The diffuse X-ray emission
Obviously, the reduced thermal conduction eﬃciency of method 1 results in a lower evaporation rate of cold gas relative to that of method 2.
The evolution of planetary nebulae. V. The diffuse X-ray emission
The dotted line gives a theoretical upper limit of the ‘evaporated’ mass based on Eq. (16).
The evolution of planetary nebulae. V. The diffuse X-ray emission
As long as the wind power and hence the energy input into the bubble increases steadily, the conduction front is obviously in the ‘evaporation’ phase, and cooler nebular gas is heated and added to the bubble.
The evolution of planetary nebulae. V. The diffuse X-ray emission
Due to the continued expansion, densities decrease and radiative losses becomes less important; the conduction front turns slowly back into the ‘evaporating’ stage, and the bubble mass starts to increase again, but at a reduced rate (Fig. 6).
The evolution of planetary nebulae. V. The diffuse X-ray emission
It must be noted, however, that Eq. (9) assumes that radiative cooling of the bubble is negligible, and thus provides only an upper limit of the evaporation rate (cf.
The evolution of planetary nebulae. V. The diffuse X-ray emission
Equation (9) allows us to compute the (equilibrium) evaporation rate of a bubble with given temperature and radius.
The evolution of planetary nebulae. V. The diffuse X-ray emission
Under these circumstances, the wind must supply the power to heat and expand both the stellar wind entering the bubble through the inner shock and the mass being added at the surface of the bubble by ‘evaporation’.
The evolution of planetary nebulae. V. The diffuse X-ray emission
Note again that Eq. (16) gives an upper limit of the evaporation rate, since both fth and C1 will be smaller than assumed here if radiation losses are important.
The evolution of planetary nebulae. V. The diffuse X-ray emission
In our model simulations, ‘evaporation’ due to thermal conduction is signiﬁcantly less e ﬃcient than predicted by Eq. (16).
The evolution of planetary nebulae. V. The diffuse X-ray emission
Later, ‘evaporation’ becomes more eﬃcient and the mass of the bubble grows much faster than implied by the wind moss loss rate.
The evolution of planetary nebulae. V. The diffuse X-ray emission
However, radiative line cooling is not included in their analytical models, leading to a severe overestimation of the evaporation rate (see Sect. 3.3).
The evolution of planetary nebulae. V. The diffuse X-ray emission
We have already seen in Sect. 3 that thermal conduction across the bubble/PN interface causes the bubble mass to increase rapidly with time thanks to ‘evaporation’ from the dense nebular matter.
The evolution of planetary nebulae. V. The diffuse X-ray emission
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