enzyme

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n enzyme any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • n enzyme ĕn"zīm (Physiol. Chem) A protein produced by a living organism, capable of catalyzing a chemical reaction. Almost all processes in living organisms require some form of enzyme to cause the reactions to occur at a rate sufficient to support life. There are a very wide variety of enzymes, each specifically catalyzing a different chemical reaction, the sum of which cause the bulk of the physiological changes observed as life processes. Enzymes, like most proteins, are synthesized by the protein-synthetic mechanism of the living cell, at special sites on ribosomes, using the genetic information in messenger RNA transcribed from the genetic instructions stored as nuleotide sequences in the DNA (or in some viruses, the RNA) of the genome. Some examples of enzymes are: pepsin, diastase, rennet, DNA polymerase, invertase, glucose oxidase, protease, and ribonuclease. There are many other types of enzyme.The 1913 Webster defined an enzyme as: An unorganized or unformed ferment, in distinction from an organized or living ferment; a soluble, or chemical, ferment.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Enzyme any of the unorganised ferments: leavened bread—opp. to Azym (q.v.)
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
Pref. en-,Gr. 'en in) + Gr. zy`mh leaven
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
Gr. en, in, zymē, leaven.

Usage

In literature:

Questions relating to the enzymes, which are of the greatest importance in all these life-processes, are especially complicated.
"Darwin and Modern Science" by A.C. Seward and Others
Calhoun brought out hormones and enzymes and medicaments from the Med Ship while the guard in the ship looked on.
"This World Is Taboo" by Murray Leinster
These enzymes are at once the products and the agents of life.
"The Breath of Life" by John Burroughs
There are poisonous enzymes that poison the rest of it.
"Northern Nut Growers Association Report of the Proceedings at the" by Various
C., which destroys the enzyme, and a 25 per cent.
"The Handbook of Soap Manufacture" by W. H. Simmons
We can predict what will happen when massive doses of hormones and enzymes and such are used.
"Anything You Can Do ..." by Gordon Randall Garrett
Two drops of a synthetic enzyme in his drink; tasteless, but extremely effective.
"Starman's Quest" by Robert Silverberg
Calhoun brought out hormones and enzymes and medicaments from the Med Ship while the guard in the ship looked on.
"Pariah Planet" by Murray Leinster
Milk contains traces of many other substances, the most important of which are several enzymes which assist in its digestion.
"The Bacillus of Long Life" by Loudon Douglas
This baby has an enzyme system that's straight from hell.
"Contamination Crew" by Alan Edward Nourse
This is characteristic of many enzymes and luciferase is also an enzyme.
"The Nature of Animal Light" by E. Newton Harvey
It produces enzymes that enable the fly to digest the great amounts of sugar it gets from plant juice.
"Sense of Obligation" by Henry Maxwell Dempsey (AKA Harry Harrison)
The oxidation is probably due to an enzyme, and also to the presence of chemical substances of a phenolic nature.
"The Preparation of Plantation Rubber" by Sidney Morgan
This is usually accomplished by an enzyme which is secreted by a ferment.
"The Philippine Agricultural Review" by Various
EMUL'SINE, or SYNAPTASE, originally the name given to the mixture of enzymes in bitter and sweet almonds.
"The New Gresham Encyclopedia" by Various
We may here notice the frequent production of glucose by the action of enzymes upon other carbohydrates.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 12, Slice 2" by Various
The hyphae dissolved holes in the membrane by means of enzymes and plunged into the attractive substance on the other side.
"Disease in Plants" by H. Marshall Ward
This is done by the enzymes which cause digestion.
"A Civic Biology" by George William Hunter
These agree very well with half-lives measured by others by inducing for short times and measuring the course of enzyme formation.
"Significant Achievements in Space Bioscience 1958-1964" by National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Enzymes in certain plants will also coagulate it.
"The Book of Cheese" by Charles Thom and Walter Warner Fisk
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In news:

CEO Mark Emalfarb says the Jupiter-based company manipulates a patented fungus through its technology to create commercially viable enzymes .
In 2010, NEB scientists identified the MspJI family of restriction enzymes, which has the ability to excise small fragments of methylated DNA for use in epigenetics studies.
Brady RO, Schiffman R Enzyme replacement therapy for metablolic storage disorders.
In raw honey, the enzymes are still active and work well as a topical first aid.
Timothy Lu gets bacteria to make enzymes that attack their own biofilms, setting them up for the kill.
If you're lactose intolerant, you may have better luck with raw milk since its bacteria creates an enzyme called lactase that breaks down lactose.
Oxyrane Raises $26.5M to Take Lead Enzyme Replacement Therapy Through Phase I /II.
When the enzyme phytase was added to the diets, the digestibility of phosphorus in FSBM increased slightly to 71.9%, whereas phosphorus digestibility in conventional soybean meal increased to 71.4.
Placebo Effect Linked to Dopamine-Clearing Enzyme.
Blocking an Enzyme Boosts Chemotherapy Potency .
Researchers Determine Proinflammatory Enzyme's Role in Limiting Neutrophil Inflammation in the Lung.
The new enzyme preparation can prolonging the shelf-life of industrially produced bread by up to 15 days.
Studies on Antioxidants, Fiber, Raw Foods and Proteolytic Enzymes.
"High triglycerides are a major problem for many people and we knew the lipase enzyme had the ability to break the fats down," said Ed Schuler, BIO-CAT CEO.
FDA cleared Shire 's Gaucher disease enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), VPRIV™ (velaglucerase alfa for injection).
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In science:

W¨achtersh¨auser G (1988) Before enzymes and templates: theory of surface metabolism.
Magnetism, FeS colloids, and Origins of Life
Schallau, K., Junker, B.H.: Simulating Plant Metabolic Pathways with Enzyme-Kinetic Models.
Generalized modeling of ecological population dynamics
Genome-scale metabolic models provide a tested framework to relate genotypes (lists of enzyme-coding genes) to metabolic capabilities and phenotypes [23,24].
Randomizing genome-scale metabolic networks
This category also includes any interactions (including those with more than two interactants) where one of interactants has a biological role of MI:0501 (enzyme) or MI:0502 (enzyme target).
ppiTrim: Constructing non-redundant and up-to-date interactomes
Monte carlo simulations of enzyme reactions in two dimensions: fractal kinetics and spatial segregation.
Anomalous subdiffusion due to obstacles : A critical survey
When both the enzymes are present then a benefit b is obtained.
Strategy abundance in evolutionary many-player games with multiple strategies
In this case the freeloaders can get the benefit when the other two players produce both enzymes.
Strategy abundance in evolutionary many-player games with multiple strategies
We believe this fact reflects a difference in the way in which the samples themselves were prepared; a contaminating (non-trypsin) proteolytic enzyme may have been introduced into the Mix 1 samples, or may have been more active in these than in the Mix 2 samples.
Analyzing LC-MS/MS data by spectral count and ion abundance: two case studies
MnSOD increased in hippocampus at 24, 48 and 72 h after ischemia, coincident with the marked reduction in the activity of glutathione-related enzymes.
Time course of oxidative damage in different brain regions following transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils
By way of contrast, when the operon is “off ”, this enzymes are lacking (or expressed at low “basal” levels).
A First Exposure to Statistical Mechanics for Life Scientists
It has been possible to measure relative changes in the production of this enzyme as a function of both the number of repressor molecules and the strength of the repressor binding sites .
A First Exposure to Statistical Mechanics for Life Scientists
Experimental evidence indicates that enzymes (type II topoisomerases) act locally in DNA to perform a strand passage (two strands of the DNA which are close together pass through one another) in order to disentangle the DNA so that normal cellular processes can proceed .
Knotting probabilities after a local strand passage in unknotted self-avoiding polygons
Topoisomerase enzymes are able to, through a local action (strand passage) on DNA, efficiently change the knot-type of a DNA molecule.
Knotting probabilities after a local strand passage in unknotted self-avoiding polygons
Just how the enzyme determines the local position within the DNA and to what extent randomness is involved are open questions.
Knotting probabilities after a local strand passage in unknotted self-avoiding polygons
Today, regulated enzymes lower activation energy barriers by controlling the orientations of the reactants.
Field-control, phase-transitions, and life's emergence
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