empiricism

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n empiricism medical practice and advice based on observation and experience in ignorance of scientific findings
    • n empiricism the application of empirical methods in any art or science
    • n empiricism (philosophy) the doctrine that knowledge derives from experience
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • Empiricism Specifically, a practice of medicine founded on mere experience, without the aid of science or a knowledge of principles; ignorant and unscientific practice; charlatanry; quackery.
    • Empiricism The method or practice of an empiric; pursuit of knowledge by observation and experiment.
    • Empiricism (Metaph) The philosophical theory which attributes the origin of all our knowledge to experience.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n empiricism The character of being empirical; reliance on direct experience and observation rather than on theory; empirical method; especially, an undue reliance upon mere individual experience.
    • n empiricism In medicine, the practice of empirics; hence, quackery; the pretension of an ignorant person to medical skill.
    • n empiricism The metaphysical theory that all ideas are derived from sensuous experience—that is, that there are no innate or a priori conceptions.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • ns Empiricism (phil.) the system which, rejecting all a priori knowledge, rests solely on experience and induction: dependence of a physician on his experience alone without a regular medical education: the practice of medicine without a regular education: quackery: Empir′icist, one who practises empiricism
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Etymology

Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
Fr.,—L. empiricus—Gr. empeirikosem, in, peira, a trial.

Usage

In literature:

Hooker's staff was worse than sham-science, and was not even empiricism.
"Diary from November 12, 1862, to October 18, 1863" by Adam Gurowski
This is the difference between an experimental philosophy and a crude empiricism.
"Hours in a Library" by Leslie Stephen
Empiricism is known as the opposite of rationalism.
"Essays in Radical Empiricism" by William James
Historic empiricism has been empirical in a technical and controversial sense.
"Creative Intelligence" by John Dewey, Addison W. Moore, Harold Chapman Brown, George H. Mead, Boyd H. Bode, Henry Waldgrave, Stuart James, Hayden Tufts, Horace M. Kallen
What the influence of modern empiricism upon American opinion may be, it is difficult to determine.
"Means and Ends of Education" by J. L. Spalding
Author of a work entitled Condillac, or Empiricism and Rationalism, '64.
"A Biographical Dictionary of Freethinkers of All Ages and Nations" by Joseph Mazzini Wheeler
Hence the utter failure of all empiricism, and the absolute need of Revelation and a supernatural religion.
"William Blake" by Charles Gardner
Dogma and empiricism, in nearly all subjects, has rendered immense service to mankind.
"The Scientific Basis of National Progress" by George Gore
Empiricism was characteristic of all early speculation in Greece.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 9, Slice 3" by Various
The instances of new theories agreeing with and explaining old empiricisms, are innumerable.
"A System of Logic: Ratiocinative and Inductive" by John Stuart Mill
What, then, according to him and in the system of empiricism, is the notion of substance?
"Lectures on the true, the beautiful and the good" by Victor Cousin
As his empiricism is worthless, so is his rationality.
"Know the Truth; A critique of the Hamiltonian Theory of Limitation" by Jesse H. Jones
Here is another contribution to my radical empiricism, which I send hot on the heels of the last one.
"The Letters of William James, Vol. II" by William James
Dewey's attempt to show that English empiricism and transcendentalism have a common psychological basis must be regarded as a failure.
"John Dewey's logical theory" by Delton Thomas Howard
So the spirit of empiricism has here as at other points completely prevailed.
"International Congress of Arts and Science, Volume I" by Various
It has made no addition to that old empiricism which the school of Leibnitz and of Kant had refuted.
"The Contemporary Review, Volume 36, October 1879" by Various
The philosophic empiricism initiated by Locke was thus disintegrative in intent.
"Reconstruction in Philosophy" by John Dewey
This is as far removed as possible either from dualism or from empiricism.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 14, Slice 3" by Various
This view is the essence of empiricism as a logical theory.
"Studies in Logical Theory" by John Dewey
His merit consists in having brought up the principle of scientific empiricism, and only in this.
"A History of Philosophy in Epitome" by Albert Schwegler
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In news:

The Electoral Battle Between Corporationism and Empiricism.
But in his empiricism , his curiosity, his insistence on nuance, and his lack of dogmatism, Obama is indeed a sort of anti-Bush--and perhaps the best kind.
In the first two decades of the 20th century, American intellectuals moved away from a Christian view of the world and opted for a secular philosophy of Pragmatism and empiricism.
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In science:

It is worth noticing that this need is a theoretical one: empiricism didn’t determine, and not even influenced, Einstein in his ideas.
Higher-Order Theories of Gravitation
During the heyday of logical empiricism, many influential people denied that distinct and incompatible but empirically equivalent theories existed [Glymour, 1970].
Empirical Equivalence, Artificial Gauge Freedom and a Generalized Kretschmann Objection
Astride the divided line: Platonism, empiricism, and Einstein’s epistemological opportunism.
Empirical Equivalence, Artificial Gauge Freedom and a Generalized Kretschmann Objection
Few see this as having anything to do with the philosophy of science. I argue that many diverse ills of modern science are a consequence of the fact that the scientific community has long accepted, and sought to implement, a bad philosophy of science, which I call standard empiricism.
Do We Need a Scientific Revolution?
Standard empiricism needs to be rejected, and the more rigorous philosophy of science of aim-oriented empiricism needs to be adopted and explicitly implemented in scientific practice instead.
Do We Need a Scientific Revolution?
This view, which I shall call standard empiricism (SE) is generally taken for granted by the scientific community.
Do We Need a Scientific Revolution?
Another way of putting the matter is to say that the basic intellectual aim of science is not truth per se (as standard empiricism holds) but rather truth presupposed to be explanatory explanatory truth, in other words.
Do We Need a Scientific Revolution?
Natural science puts something close to this hierarchical view into practice, but in a way that is constrained and handicapped by general allegiance to standard empiricism (SE), and it is this which damages science in a variety of ways, as we shall now see.
Do We Need a Scientific Revolution?
Few see this as having anything to do with the philosophy of science. I have argued that many diverse ills of modern science are a consequence of the fact that the scientific community has long accepted, and sought to implement, a bad philosophy of science, namely standard empiricism.
Do We Need a Scientific Revolution?
Standard empiricism needs to be rejected, and the more rigorous philosophy of science of aim-oriented empiricism needs to be adopted and explicitly implemented in scientific practice instead.
Do We Need a Scientific Revolution?
Probabilistic Empiricism: In Defence of a Reichenbachian Theory of Causation and the Direction of Time.
Influence tests I: ideal composite hypothesis tests, and causal semimeasures
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