copula

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n copula an equating verb (such as `be' or `become') that links the subject with the complement of a sentence
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • Copula (Mus) The stop which connects the manuals, or the manuals with the pedals; -- called also coupler.
    • Copula (Logic & Gram) The word which unites the subject and predicate.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n copula In grammar and logic, that word or part of a proposition which expresses the relation between the subject and the predicate. Thus, in the proposition “Religion is indispensable to happiness,” is is the copula joining religion, the subject, with indispensable to happiness, the predicate, and itself expressing merely the predication or assertion which is the essential element of a sentence. Any other verb is capable of being analyzed into the copula and a predicate: thus, “he lives” into “he is living,” and so on.
    • n copula In an organ, same as coupler.
    • n copula In anatomy, some coupling or connecting part, usually distinguished by a qualifying term; especially, a median bone or cartilage connecting hyoidean and branchial arches, and also uniting opposite halves of these arches respectively, as a basibranchial.
    • n copula In law, sexual intercourse.
    • n copula In botany, same as zygospore.
    • n copula In zoology, the cell resulting from the union of a microgamete and a macrogamete among the Sporozoa.
    • n copula In chem., one compound substance united with and modifying the character of another. See copulated compound.
    • n copula A commissure; the corpus callosum.
    • n copula In music, a brief connecting passage, especially between the subject and answer of a fugue. Also called codetta or conduit.
    • n copula Same as amboceptor.
    • n copula In ichthyology, same as actinost.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Copula kop′ū-la that which joins together: a bond or tie:
    • n Copula (gram.) a conjunction that unites ideas as well as words
    • v.t Copula and v.i. Cop′ulāte, to unite in sexual commerce
    • n Copula kop′ū-la (logic) the word joining the subject and predicate
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L., bond, band. See Couple
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
L.,—co-, together, ap-ĕre, to join.

Usage

In literature:

As a verb, it does duty as predicate and copula combined.
"The Soul of the Far East" by Percival Lowell
In the first series of propositions the word 'is' is really the copula; in the second, the verb of existence.
"Parmenides" by Plato
There was no visible copula of the tablet with cones; no antennae between it and the circled shields.
"The Metal Monster" by A. Merritt
Logically, it is merely the copula of a judgement.
"The Critique of Pure Reason" by Immanuel Kant
For the omission of the copula see n. on 53.
"Cato Maior de Senectute" by Marcus Tullius Cicero
Define the subject of a sentence; the predicate; the object; the copula.
"Latin for Beginners" by Benjamin Leonard D'Ooge
In such a case as this, the verb expresses predication and nothing else, and is called a copula.
"Hume" by T.H. Huxley
Copula, Copulation: the act of sexual union.
"Explanation of Terms Used in Entomology" by John. B. Smith
The terms are connected by the copula.
"Monophysitism Past and Present" by A. A. Luce
Sometimes, to make his sense unmistakable, he will repeat a whole formula, with only a change in the copula.
"Hours in a Library" by Leslie Stephen
There are, however, certain cases in which the qualification may be detached from the copula; e.g.
"Analysis of Mr. Mill's System of Logic" by William Stebbing
He thinks his fate alien, because the copula is hidden.
"The Voice of Science in Nineteenth-Century Literature" by Various
It consists of (1) the basihyal variously called copula, or corpus linguae, or unpaired middle portion.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 3, Slice 7" by Various
Each of these eight copulae gives rise to a spore.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 9, Slice 3" by Various
Every proposition consists of three parts: the Subject, the Predicate, and the Copula.
"A System of Logic: Ratiocinative and Inductive" by John Stuart Mill
These propositions, as will be seen, are not cast in what the logician calls logical form, with regular terms and copula.
"John Dewey's logical theory" by Delton Thomas Howard
Quando uterus prolabitur vel cervix producitur ita ut copula impossibilis sit, chirurgus mederi potest.
"Essays In Pastoral Medicine" by Austin ÓMalley
In these we recognize the insistent demand for the organization of predicate and copula.
"Studies in Logical Theory" by John Dewey
This connecting word is called the Copula.
"Thought-Culture" by William Walker Atkinson
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In poetry:

Felices ter et amplius
Quos irrupta tenet Copula, nec malis
Divulsus querimoniis,
Suprema citius solvet amor die.
"Female Beauty" by Mark Akenside

In science:

Here also relationships to copulas are considered.
Convex geometry of max-stable distributions
It is shown that max-zonoids are only those convex sets whose support functions generate multivariate extreme value copulas.
Convex geometry of max-stable distributions
The function (5.1) is a copula function if and only if K is a max-zonoid.
Convex geometry of max-stable distributions
Thus, (5.1) is an Archimedean copula if and only if K is ℓp -ball with p ∈ [1, ∞], see Example 3.3.
Convex geometry of max-stable distributions
The bivariate copulas are closely related to several association concepts between random variables, see .
Convex geometry of max-stable distributions
Hutchinson-Lai’s conjecture for bivariate extreme value copulas.
Convex geometry of max-stable distributions
An Introduction to Copulas, volume 139 of Lect.
Convex geometry of max-stable distributions
Also the distributions called copulas, extensively investigated recently, are giving the possibility of modelling complicated structure of dependencies.
Weak stability and generalized weak convolution for random vectors and stochastic processes
Abstract: In this paper, we obtain general representations for the joint distributions and copulas of arbitrary dependent random variables absolutely continuous with respect to the product of given one-dimensional marginal distributions.
Characterizations of joint distributions, copulas, information, dependence and decoupling, with applications to time series
The characterizations obtained in the paper represent joint distributions of dependent random variables and their copulas as sums of U -statistics in independent random variables.
Characterizations of joint distributions, copulas, information, dependence and decoupling, with applications to time series
As a corollary of the results, we obtain new representations for multivariate divergence measures as well as complete characterizations of important classes of dependent random variables that give, in particular, methods for constructing new copulas and modeling different dependence structures.
Characterizations of joint distributions, copulas, information, dependence and decoupling, with applications to time series
Keywords and phrases: joint distribution, copulas, information, dependence, decoupling, convergence, relative entropy, Kullback–Leibler and Shannon mutual information, Pearson coefficient, Hellinger distance, divergence measures.
Characterizations of joint distributions, copulas, information, dependence and decoupling, with applications to time series
Another approach, which is also becoming more and more popular in econometrics and dependence modeling in finance and risk management is the one based on copulas.
Characterizations of joint distributions, copulas, information, dependence and decoupling, with applications to time series
Copulas, therefore, capture all the dependence properties of the data generating process.
Characterizations of joint distributions, copulas, information, dependence and decoupling, with applications to time series
Patton studied modeling time-varying dependence in financial markets using the concept of conditional copula.
Characterizations of joint distributions, copulas, information, dependence and decoupling, with applications to time series
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