commutation

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n commutation the act of putting one thing or person in the place of another: "he sent Smith in for Jones but the substitution came too late to help"
    • n commutation the travel of a commuter
    • n commutation (law) the reduction in severity of a punishment imposed by law
    • n commutation a warrant substituting a lesser punishment for a greater one
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: According to research, Los Angeles highways are so congested that the average commuter sits in traffic for 82 hours a year
    • Commutation A passing from one state to another; change; alteration; mutation. "So great is the commutation that the soul then hated only that which now only it loves."
    • Commutation A substitution, as of a less thing for a greater, esp. a substitution of one form of payment for another, or one payment for many, or a specific sum of money for conditional payments or allowances; as, commutation of tithes; commutation of fares; commutation of copyright; commutation of rations.
    • Commutation regular travel from a place of residence to a place where one's daily work is performed; commuting. Most often, such travel is performed between a suburb and a nearby city.
    • Commutation The act of giving one thing for another; barter; exchange. "The use of money is . . . that of saving the commutation of more bulky commodities."
    • Commutation (Law) The change of a penalty or punishment by the pardoning power of the State; as, the commutation of a sentence of death to banishment or imprisonment. "Suits are allowable in the spiritual courts for money agreed to be given as a commutation for penance."
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: Seating on the first scheduled inter-city commuter airplane flight consisted of moveable wicker chairs. There were 11 of them on the first Ford Tri-Motors. After several years, Ford replaced them with aluminum framed leather chairs.
    • n commutation A passing from one state to another; alteration; change.
    • n commutation The act of giving one thing for another; exchange; barter.
    • n commutation The act of substituting one thing for another; substitution.
    • n commutation Specifically— In law, the change of a penalty or punishment from a greater to a less, as banishment instead of death.
    • n commutation The substitution of one sort of payment for another, or of a money payment in lieu of the performance of compulsory duty or labor, or of a single payment in lieu of a number of successive payments, usually at a reduced rate. See commutation-ticket.
    • n commutation Milit., the money value of allowances, such as quarters, fuel, forage, etc., taken in place of them.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Every workday, 6.7 million people commute to Manhattan
    • n Commutation the act of commuting: change or exchange of one thing for another: the change of a penalty or rate from a greater to a less
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Quotations

  • Elwyn Brooks White
    Elwyn%20Brooks%20White
    “Commuter -- one who spends his life in riding to and from his wife; And man who shaves and takes a train, and then rides back to shave again.”
  • Elwyn Brooks White
    Elwyn%20Brooks%20White
    “Commuters give the city its tidal restlessness; natives give it solidity and continuity; but the settlers give it passion.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L. commutatio,: cf. F. commutation,
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
L. commutārecom, with mutāre, to change.

Usage

In literature:

So the punishment was commuted into 'palmies.
"The Modern Scottish Minstrel, Volume V." by Various
Do not commute its sentence.
"Masterpieces of Negro Eloquence" by Various
Irate commuters have glared vindictively at trains they have just missed.
"Human Traits and their Social Significance" by Irwin Edman
So the punishment was commuted into 'palmies.
"The Modern Scottish Minstrel, Volumes I-VI." by Various
Parker, he figured, belonged to the race of commuters; evidently he lived in Stamford and did business in New York.
"From Place to Place" by Irvin S. Cobb
To these arms the brushes (21) are attached, so that their spring ends engage with the commutator (12).
"Electricity for Boys" by J. S. Zerbe
Her chief confederates were sentenced to death, but this was commuted to a heavy fine and long imprisonment.
"History of the United States, Volume 5" by E. Benjamin Andrews
Its advantages in this connection are to be traced to the fact that a commutator so built up is durable and keeps a clean surface.
"On Laboratory Arts" by Richard Threlfall
And Montagu had gone with Owen and Duncan to beg that the expulsion might be commuted into some other punishment.
"Eric, or Little by Little" by Frederic W. Farrar
But we obtained commutation of penalty for both.
"Edmond Dantès" by Edmund Flagg
But on reconsidering the matter she commuted the sentence into life-long slavery in long chains.
"The Fugitives" by R.M. Ballantyne
Before the execution could take place, the sentence was commuted to thirty days in the guardhouse.
"Little Journeys to the Homes of the Great, Volume 11 (of 14)" by Elbert Hubbard
It is not good for country children to be village or city commuters.
"The Challenge of the Country" by George Walter Fiske
Attendance on the former has been commuted into fines to maintain the latter.
"Trevethlan: Volume 1" by William Davy Watson
The evening commute had begun in earnest, so there was a lot more traffic than there had been that morning.
"Syndrome" by Thomas Hoover
His father and elder brother have been executed, and he commuted to life because of youth.
"Prison Memoirs of an Anarchist" by Alexander Berkman
Mr. Manning, rector, in favour of the commutation of the tithes.
"Norfolk Annals A Chronological Record of Remarkable Events in the Nineteeth Century, Vol. 1" by Charles Mackie
Like other suburban commuters at Christmas time, he was heavily laden with bundles of one kind and another.
"A Little Book of Christmas" by John Kendrick Bangs
And that, if the trial should terminate unfavorably, she would petition the governor for a commutation of the sentence.
"The Haunted Homestead" by E. D. E. N. Southworth
Commutator brush spring Ressort de balai de distributeur.
"English-French and French-English dictionary of the motor car, cycle, and boat" by Frederick Lucas
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In poetry:

And then commutes the dire intent
To that of toil and banishment.
They hear their doom without a sigh
Or e'en a tear to dim the eye:
"Banishment Of Man From The Garden Of The Lord" by James Madison Bell
That turns the sweetest buds to flowers,
And chops and changes toys,
That breaks up dreams, and parts old friends,
And still commutes our joys—
"The Ape" by Charles Lamb

In news:

Google Maps An unidentified woman died tonight after apparently walking onto the commuter rail tracks in Hazlet and being struck by an oncoming train, officials said.
Man killed by commuter train in Atlanta.
ATLANTA — Atlanta police are investigation the death of a man who was struck by a MARTA commuter train carrying several passengers.
Murray police have identified the person killed in a collision between a car and a commuter train as a 72-year-old Idaho woman.
WASHINGTON PARK (AP) — Authorities are looking into why a car was hit by a light-rail commuter train in the southwestern Illinois village of Washington Park.
An overhead cable carrying 25,000 volts of current fell down and struck a train packed with commuters near Penkridge.
Commuter Train Hit by Live Cables in Staffordshire.
The coming of commuter rail "offers the possibility for some really wonderful things to happen," he said.
Two years ago, North Bay voters passed a sales tax increase to fund a new commuter rail system.
Bomb-Screening of Commuter Train Passengers Starts in New Jersey.
Metrorail worker was hit by commuter train in Miami-Dade while on the tracks, killed.
Commuters in the new West End Concourse .
I'm a bike commuter and it is absolutely unsafe to listen to podcasts while riding a bike, so unlike most listeners, I actually go without my public radio fix while I commute .
To walk you through the do's and don'ts of gearing up for your commute , I stopped commuters at rush hour to talk about strategies to look good and lighten their loads.
In The New York Commuter 's Glossary, Malone has given a name to all of the little indignities that face a daily train commuter .
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In science:

In addition, there are time ordering effects not related to time correlation: these are associated with commutators [ ˆVi (t1 ), ˆVi (t2 )] and enter at second order in ˆV and first order in ˆv (since the commutator vanishes for ˆv = 0).
How Time Works in Quantum Systems: Overview of time ordering and time correlation in weakly perturbed atomic collisions and in strongly perturbed qubits
However, we choose this much simple construction to shed some light on the relation of the non-commutative dynamical systems and commutative dynamical systems which could be buried by some more complicated combinatory argument.
Tracial Rokhlin property for automorphisms on simple $A{\mathbb T}$-algebras
Not all the angular momentum operators involved necessarily commute, and so triad operators do not always commute with each other such that a triad representation does not exist (unlike in the symmetric models studied before).
Quantum Riemannian Geometry and Black Holes
If u commutes with two members of a triple ui,j , ui+1,j , ui,j+1 then it commutes with the third.
Presentations of finite simple groups: a quantitative approach
If u commutes with two members of a triple ui,j , ui−1,j , ui,j−1 then it commutes with the third.
Presentations of finite simple groups: a quantitative approach
If u commutes with two members of a triple wi,j , wi+1,j , wi,j+1 then it commutes with the third.
Presentations of finite simple groups: a quantitative approach
If w commutes with two members of a triple ui,j , ui+1,j , ui,j+1 then it commutes with the third.
Presentations of finite simple groups: a quantitative approach
If w commutes with two members of a triple ui,j , ui−1,j , ui,j−1 then it commutes with the third.
Presentations of finite simple groups: a quantitative approach
Namely, u commutes with two members of the triple w−i,−j , w−i+1,−j , w−i,−j+1 , hence, by (4.7), u commutes with the third, and hence w commutes with the third member of the triple in (4.8).
Presentations of finite simple groups: a quantitative approach
The notion of “reduced” was involved in our induction: commuting with two elements of a triple of group elements implies commuting with the third; in the induction, the third vector was “longer” than the other two.
Presentations of finite simple groups: a quantitative approach
Therefore, by (3), if w commutes with uv+l for each l ∈ M \ {h} then it commutes with uv+h .
Presentations of finite simple groups: a quantitative approach
Parrott gave an example (see also , Chapter I, Section 3) which showed that the dilation theorem is no longer true in the case of more than two commuting contractions (for an analogue for commuting Markov operators see ). 3.
On random almost periodic trigonometric polynomials and applications to ergodic theory
It can be checked using the new and improved definition that the commutator of two generalized Lie derivatives is also a generalized Lie derivative as in Eq. (31) and definition of generalized commutator of two generalized vectors remains the same as in Eq. (32), ˆLV ˆLW − ˆLW ˆLV = ˆL{V ,W } .
Generalized forms and vector fields
In particular, localization Prime ideals play a central role in the Theory of Rings. of commutative rings at prime ideals is an essential tool in Commutative Algebra.
Fully Coprime Comodules and Fully Coprime Corings
Non-commutative Henselian rings are defined and it is shown that a local ring which is complete and separated in the topology defined by its maximal ideal is Henselian provided that it is almost commutative.
Non-commutative Henselian Rings
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