commensal

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • adj commensal living in a state of commensalism
    • n commensal either of two different animal or plant species living in close association but not interdependent
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • Commensal (Zoöl) An animal, not truly parasitic, which lives in, with, or on, another, partaking usually of the same food. Both species may be benefited by the association.
    • a Commensal Having the character of a commensal.
    • Commensal One who eats at the same table.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • commensal Eating together at the same table.
    • commensal In zoology and botany, living with as a tenant or coinhabitant, but not as a parasite; inquiline. See II., 2.
    • n commensal One who eats at the same table with another or others.
    • n commensal In zoology and botany, one of two animals or plants which live together, but neither at the expense of the other; an animal or a plant as a tenant, but not a true parasite, of another; an inquiline. Thus the small pea-crab (Pinnotheres), which lives with an oyster in the same shell, but feeds itself, as does the oyster, is a commensal; such also is the cancrisocial seaanemone, which lives on the shell of a crab, or on a shell which a hermit-crab occupies. (See cut under cancrisocial. Compare consortism, parasite.) In regard to plants, many authorities hold that a lichen consists of a fungus and an alga growing together, but possibly as parasite and host. See lichen.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • adj Commensal ko-men′sal eating at the same table
    • n Commensal a messmate
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
LL. commensalis,; L. com-, + mensa, table: cf. F. commensal,. Cf. Mensal

Usage

In literature:

This kind of mutually beneficial external partnership is called commensalism, i.e.
"The Outline of Science, Vol. 1 (of 4)" by J. Arthur Thomson
Commensalism: applied to this manner of living and eating together.
"Explanation of Terms Used in Entomology" by John. B. Smith
The rule is a very ancient Semitic one, due to the old connection between sacrifice and commensality.
"Folkways" by William Graham Sumner
Then I shed all my things and commensed the arduus wurk of dressin.
"The Bad Boy At Home And His Experiences In Trying To Become An Editor - 1885" by Walter T. Gray
Parasitism, commensalism, mutualism, exist with animals among the different species.
"Introduction to the Science of Sociology" by Robert E. Park
It is a case of commensalism of which there are very numerous examples.
"The Industries of Animals" by Frédéric Houssay
Though no crab, perhaps, is truly parasitic, some live in relations of "commensalism" with other animals.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 7, Slice 6" by Various
From them Schaudinn decided that the poisonous action of the mosquito bite is caused by an enzyme from a commensal fungus.
"Handbook of Medical Entomology" by William Albert Riley
Why are these associations called commensalism rather than symbiosis?
"A Guide for the Study of Animals" by Worrallo Whitney
They were commensal officers of the king's house.
"A Philosophical Dictionary, Volume 6 (of 10)" by François-Marie Arouet (AKA Voltaire)
Now I dont want it understood, that enny one hen ken, kan commense life, with the usual kapital, and live 999 years.
"The Complete Works of Josh Billings" by Henry W. Shaw
It was practised by ladies of high rank amongst their commensals and attendants.
"Curiosities of Medical Experience" by J. G. (John Gideon) Millingen
It is thus, in the strict sense of the word, a commensal.
"The Life of Crustacea" by William Thomas Calman
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In news:

Entamoeba histolytica can act as a harmless commensal organism in the lumen of the large intestine, or can cause invasive amoebiasis.
Intestinal Commensal Microbes as Immune Modulators p496.
Host–microbe interactions that facilitate gut colonization by commensal bifidobacteria p467.
The brittle stars living commensally with the deep-water corals were hard hit too, with 53 percent displaying abnormal colors and/or attachment to the corals.
The Gut paper is the first study to test whether antibodies for oral bacteria are indicators of pancreatic cancer risk and the first study to associate the immune response to commensal bacteria with pancreatic cancer risk.
After 28 years in the urban and industrial pest management industries, well-known industry consultant Bobby Corrigan shares his extensive knowledge of commensal rodents in this hardcover book.
The Pest Significance of Commensal Rodents .
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In science:

The GALFA-HI survey has been mapping the entire Arecibo sky at a velocity resolution of 0.18 km s−1and an angular resolution of 3.5 arcmin, operating mainly commensally with other surveys undertaken with the Arecibo L-Band Feed Array.
Galaxy evolution begins at home: GALFA, EVLA, and GASKAP
The new EVLA correlator will offer a huge advance for, among other things, HI studies of galaxies in and near groups and clusters and deep searches for HI in emission or absorption, with the potential for commensal observing with all L-band EVLA programs over the full range from z = 0 to 0.5.
Conference Summary: HI Science in the Next Decade
As already demonstrated by the on-going ALFA surveys, commensal observing offers a tremendous increase in the efficiency potential of cm l instruments.
Conference Summary: HI Science in the Next Decade
As demonstrated by the commensal ALFA surveys being undertaken today at Arecibo, we should expand the design of programs which can exploit this unique feature of radio astronomy.
Conference Summary: HI Science in the Next Decade
Currently, the galactic HI TOGS program runs commensally with ALFALFA; by the end of this year, the PALFA pulsar survey will turn on a third spectrometer.
Conference Summary: HI Science in the Next Decade
Like the SKA, most of them are intended to be used in commensal mode, particularly with time domain surveys as described in the RSSKA (Radio Synoptic Square Kilometer Array) concept presented at the conference by Steve Myers.
Conference Summary: HI Science in the Next Decade
We can assume that they will deliver superb science, although exactly what surveys they will undertake probably remains to be decided based on final performance spe ci fications and the compromises required to accommodate commensal survey operations.
Conference Summary: HI Science in the Next Decade
Whatever surveys make sensible use of commensal programs should be undertaken; in those cases, our principal challenge may be to muster the bodies to process and analyze the acquired data.
Conference Summary: HI Science in the Next Decade
This is called “commensal” (= symbiotic) observing and hopefully will be a policy adopted and encouraged by observatories.
IAU (Maser) Symposium 287 Summary
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