circulate

Definitions

  • Beard's Circulating Water Tank
    Beard's Circulating Water Tank
  • WordNet 3.6
    • v circulate cause to move around "circulate a rumor"
    • v circulate cause to become widely known "spread information","circulate a rumor","broadcast the news"
    • v circulate become widely known and passed on "the rumor spread","the story went around in the office"
    • v circulate move around freely "She circulates among royalty"
    • v circulate move through a space, circuit or system, returning to the starting point "Blood circulates in my veins","The air here does not circulate"
    • v circulate cause to move in a circuit or system "The fan circulates the air in the room"
    • v circulate cause be distributed "This letter is being circulated among the faculty"
    • v circulate move in circles
    • ***

Additional illustrations & photos:

CIRCULATION OF THE BLOOD CIRCULATION OF THE BLOOD
The Organs of Circulation The Organs of Circulation

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Approximately 40% of the U.S. paper currency in circulation was counterfeit by the end of the Civil War
    • v. t Circulate To cause to pass from place to place, or from person to person; to spread; as, to circulate a report; to circulate bills of credit.
    • Circulate To move in a circle or circuitously; to move round and return to the same point; as, the blood circulates in the body.
    • Circulate To pass from place to place, from person to person, or from hand to hand; to be diffused; as, money circulates; a story circulates.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: Sports Illustrated has the largest sports magazine circulation
    • circulate To travel round; make a circuit of.
    • circulate To cause to pass from place to place or from person to person; spread; disseminate: as, to circulate, a report; to circulate bills of credit.
    • circulate To move in a circle or circuit; move or pass through a circuit back to the starting-point: as, the blood circulates in the body; the bottle circulated about the table.
    • circulate To be diffused or distributed; pass from place to place, from person to person, or from hand to hand: as, air circulates in a building; money circulates in the country; the report circulated throughout the city.
    • n circulate A circulating decimal.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: After the U.S Civil War, about 33%-50% of all U.S. paper currency in circulation was counterfeit
    • v.t Circulate sėr′kū-lāt to make to go round as in a circle: to spread: to repeat (of decimals)
    • v.i Circulate to move round: to be spread about
    • ***

Quotations

  • Robert Collier
    Robert%20Collier
    “All motion is cyclic. It circulates to the limits of its possibilities and then returns to its starting point.”
  • Arthur Baer
    Arthur Baer
    “A newspaper is a circulating library with high blood pressure.”
  • Guy Debord
    Guy Debord
    “Tourism, human circulation considered as consumption is fundamentally nothing more than the leisure of going to see what has become banal.”
  • Charles Horace Mayo
    Charles Horace Mayo
    “Worry affects the circulation, the heart, the glands, the whole nervous system. I have never known a man who died from over work, but many who died from doubt.”
  • Logan Pearsall Smith
    Logan%20Pearsall%20Smith
    “The denunciation of the young is a necessary part of the hygiene of older people, and greatly assists the circulation of their blood.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L. circulatus, p. p. of circulare, v. t., to surround, make round, circulari, v. i., to gather into a circle. See Circle

Usage

In literature:

His favorite notion was that large issues of paper money could be safely circulated with small security.
"The Great Events by Famous Historians, v. 13" by Various
Sometimes the part is gangrenous, the compression of the blood vessels preventing circulation, and thus causing the death of the tissues.
"Special Report on Diseases of Cattle" by U.S. Department of Agriculture
Up to the present the police notices circulated throughout the country had failed to establish who she was.
"The Sign of Silence" by William Le Queux
A hive standing alone, with a free circulation of air on every side, will not be seriously injured by the sun.
"Soil Culture" by J. H. Walden
Hints had been circulated by some that it was his purpose to resign.
"A Rebel War Clerk's Diary at the Confederate States Capital" by John Beauchamp Jones
What can you say of the air circulating through the soil?
"The Elements of Agriculture" by George E. Waring
Our expenses, though great, are circulated within ourselves.
"The Writings Of Thomas Paine, Complete" by Thomas Paine
If it were not for this the quantity of assignats would be too great to be circulated.
"The Writings Of Thomas Paine, Volume III. 1791-1804" by Thomas Paine
The daily circulation soon rose from 700 or 800 copies to 3,000 and over.
"Old and New London" by Walter Thornbury
The paper hadn't a very large circulation but there was a slight hum of life about that time and he liked it.
"The "Genius"" by Theodore Dreiser
It had a daily circulation of 20,000 in 1967.
"Area Handbook for Albania" by Eugene K. Keefe
One girl had a bag of candy which she was circulating among her particular friends.
"Janice Day" by Helen Beecher Long
Its character and general circulation, ii.
"History of the Intellectual Development of Europe, Volume II (of 2)" by John William Draper
The authorized circulation is L6,354,494; the actual circulation is sometimes a little above, sometimes a little below.
"The New Gresham Encyclopedia. Vol. 1 Part 3" by Various
Such a currency does not circulate at its nominal, but only at its real, value.
"A New Banking System" by Lysander Spooner
The larvae circulating in the blood are conveniently designated as microfilariae.
"Handbook of Medical Entomology" by William Albert Riley
The wind circulation over the Atlantic is of a very definite character.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 2, Slice 8" by Various
The vital functions of digestion, of circulation and respiration, of nutrition, secretion, and excretion, are performed in the same manner.
"Beauty" by Alexander Walker
The priest was not discovered, but among Egyptian earth-tillers legends began to circulate which concerned Rameses.
"The Pharaoh and the Priest" by Alexander Glovatski
These magazines circulate widely, and a study of them will disclose their needs.
"Making Your Camera Pay" by Frederick C. Davis
***

In poetry:

His despair seems to detain him like a pillory
As he lowers his anemic head in rowing,
He circulates among the boats at anchor,
Cargo-boats, steamers, coal-burners...
"Japan —Nagasaki" by Henry Jean-Marie Levet

In news:

First, is the circulation surrounding them.
Low pressure systems circulate counter-clockwise.
High pressure systems circulate clockwise.
Circulation of the country's weekly comic magazines, the essential entry point for any manga series, has fallen by about half over the last decade.
Corrects Sports Illustrated's paid circulation in fourth paragraph.
After a thousand years stuck on a dusty library shelf, the oldest copy of Homer's Iliad is about to go into digital circulation.
The final circulating coin to be released in 2009 is the quarter honoring the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands , the sixth and final coin in the District of Columbia and US territories series.
Now they say they have finished his work, and the evidence is circulating among scholars in the form of three book-length papers with about 1,000 pages of dense mathematics and prose between them.
Mokon's standard microprocessor -based controller for its line of circulating water and heat transfer fluid temperature control system and portable chillers is an operator friendly 1/16 DIN controller.
A deep and slow-moving low aloft will dominate the circulation over the eastern half of the US through Monday.
Quickly circulated through Silicon Valley, causing a stir among venture capitalists.
The long-term decline in newspaper circulation presents the conservative movement with an excellent opportunity to increase its influence with the media.
A much-circulated news report says half voted for the far-right Golden Dawn.
Photographer Adam Brimer's photo of Derek Dooley circulates on sports blogs.
Hands-on loading of soft tissue has proven to be much more than just increasing circulation or relaxing tense muscles, as important as those benefits are.
***

In science:

The orthogonal complement A⊥ is the space of all circulations, and B⊥ is the space of circulations on the dual graph.
Determining the Genus of a Map by Local Observation of a Simple Random Process
The intersection C = A⊥ ∩ B⊥ , the space of smooth circulations.
Determining the Genus of a Map by Local Observation of a Simple Random Process
We can use harmonic functions to give a more explicit description of smooth circulations in a special case.
Determining the Genus of a Map by Local Observation of a Simple Random Process
Let h be a non-zero smooth circulation on G and let G′ be the subgraph of G on which h does not vanish.
Determining the Genus of a Map by Local Observation of a Simple Random Process
Since the dimension of the space of smooth circulations is 2g , there will be a non-zero smooth circulation h vanishing on these edges.
Determining the Genus of a Map by Local Observation of a Simple Random Process
If this circulation is non-zero on (say) the left hand side of this cut, then we can replace all Before the proof of this theorem we need a simple lemma about maps.
Determining the Genus of a Map by Local Observation of a Simple Random Process
Indeed, the restriction of h to the connected component of G′ contained in this disk would be a smooth circulation on a planar map, contradicting Lemma 3.
Determining the Genus of a Map by Local Observation of a Simple Random Process
One ob jection may be that the noisy circulator, as defined, is not truly local, since (say) in operation (a) we have to select a node uniformly from all nodes.
Determining the Genus of a Map by Local Observation of a Simple Random Process
Another ob jection is that the noisy circulator as constructed above is not stationary: the total mass grows to infinity.
Determining the Genus of a Map by Local Observation of a Simple Random Process
In the equatorial plane the observer “sees” no circulation in the source and the radiation reduces to “+” polarization.
Modeling gravitational radiation from coalescing binary black holes
In the context of 2D hydrodynamics, the statistical metaequilibrium state maximizes the mixing entropy S [ρ] = − Z ρ ln ρ d2rdσ, while conserving circulation, energy and all the Casimirs.
Generalized thermodynamics and Fokker-Planck equations. Applications to stellar dynamics, two-dimensional turbulence and Jupiter's great red spot
Therefore, the coarse-grained vorticity ω extremizes a H -function : S = − Z C (ω )d2r, at fixed circulation and energy, where C (ω ) is a convex function, i.e. C ′′ (ω ) > 0.
Generalized thermodynamics and Fokker-Planck equations. Applications to stellar dynamics, two-dimensional turbulence and Jupiter's great red spot
Ellis and collaborators have shown that a strong (nonlinear) condition of dynamical stability is that ω maximizes a H-function at fixed circulation and energy.
Generalized thermodynamics and Fokker-Planck equations. Applications to stellar dynamics, two-dimensional turbulence and Jupiter's great red spot
Its maximization at fixed circulation and energy is a condition of (nonlinear) dynamical stability not a condition of thermodynamical stability.
Generalized thermodynamics and Fokker-Planck equations. Applications to stellar dynamics, two-dimensional turbulence and Jupiter's great red spot
We shall consider solutions that maximize a H-function S [ω ] at fixed circulation Γ and energy E .
Generalized thermodynamics and Fokker-Planck equations. Applications to stellar dynamics, two-dimensional turbulence and Jupiter's great red spot
***