circularity

Definitions

  • THE CIRCULAR BRIDGE
    THE CIRCULAR BRIDGE
  • WordNet 3.6
    • n circularity the roundness of a 2-dimensional figure
    • ***

Additional illustrations & photos:

Double Circular-Saw and Carriage Double Circular-Saw and Carriage
Showing arches and circular window Showing arches and circular window
Circular saw Circular saw
Circular saw cutting armour plate Circular saw cutting armour plate

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: The reason firehouses have circular stairways is from the days of yorewhen the engines were pulled by horses. The horses were stabled on theground floor and figured out how to walk up straight staircases.
    • n Circularity The quality or state of being circular; a circular form.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: More than 3000 years ago children played with circular hoops made with grape vines. This toy was swung around the waist. Years later this toy was made by company called Wham-O and the Hula-Hoop was invented in 1958
    • n circularity The state or quality of being circular; a circular form or space: as, “the circularity of the heavens,”
    • ***

Quotations

  • William Zinsser
    William Zinsser
    “Clutter is the disease of American writing. We are a society strangling in unnecessary words, circular constructions, pompous frills and meaningless jargon.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
LL. circularitas,

Usage

In literature:

Three days before the election every voter in the town received, not merely their usual election literature, but an anonymous circular.
"The Day of Judgment" by Joseph Hocking
Objection was made to our scientific teaching and circulars.
"Fighting the Traffic in Young Girls" by Various
You observe that Hammett & Co., in one circular, demand $20, for the same $5,000 prize.
"The Humbugs of the World" by P. T. Barnum
What did our Nachman Veribivker care about uprisings, the limitations of the Pale, of Circulars?
"Jewish Children" by Sholem Naumovich Rabinovich
These spots are irregularly circular and very shallow pools of hot water, some of which bubble industriously with a low, pleasant hum.
"The Book of the National Parks" by Robert Sterling Yard
The shop of a "calcarone" is circular and the floor has an inclination of from 10 to 15 degrees.
"Scientific American Supplement, No. 647, May 26, 1888" by Various
II, a circular bandage for the jaw; Fig.
"The Home Medical Library, Volume I (of VI)" by Various
The mirrors of the Greeks consisted of circular pieces of polished bronze, either without a handle or with one richly adorned.
"Museum of Antiquity" by L. W. Yaggy
This pillar was composed of circular bricks, placed in horizontal courses round a centre of the same material.
"A History of Art in Chaldæa & Assyria, v. 1" by Georges Perrot
Copernicus believed that the planets travelled round the Sun in circular paths.
"The Astronomy of Milton's 'Paradise Lost'" by Thomas Orchard
A shiny circular object a little larger than a man's hand fell out.
"The Saracen: Land of the Infidel" by Robert Shea
Some are rectangular, others circular.
"How it Works" by Archibald Williams
CIRCULAR TO THE CONSULS, August 26, 1790 LETTER XLII.
"The Memoirs, Correspondence, And Miscellanies, From The Papers Of Thomas Jefferson A Linked Index to the Project Gutenberg Editions" by Thomas Jefferson
This, too, was circular, shaped like the half of a giant bubble.
"The People of the Crater" by Andrew North
Resting upon the three towers, it was a circular band of shining metal a foot thick and as wide as a road.
"Astounding Stories, July, 1931" by Various
The semi-circular arches would have been far stronger.
"Old and New London" by Walter Thornbury
Have fillets of beef cut one and one-half inches thick; shape in circular forms.
"Fifty-Two Sunday Dinners" by Elizabeth O. Hiller
Of circular temples there are two examples known, the Philippeion at Olympia and the Tholos at Epidaurus.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 2, Slice 4" by Various
The arches were usually plain, and always semi-circular.
"Cathedral Cities of England" by George Gilbert
In this way a ceaseless circular movement is kept up, which is called the Circulation of the Blood.
"A Treatise on Physiology and Hygiene" by Joseph Chrisman Hutchison
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In poetry:

Or until they swerved
In a swift, circular line
To the left,
Because of the firecat.
"Earthy Anecdote" by Wallace Stevens
The sky-like limpid eyes,
The circular infant's face,
The stiffness from spats to collar
Never relaxing into grace;
"Brennbaum" by Ezra Pound
Here's a dandified gentleman,
Rapier at point,
And a wrist which whirls round
Like a circular joint.
A spatter of blood, man!
That's just to anoint
"The Foreigner" by Amy Lowell
Between going and staying
the day wavers,
in love with its own transparency.
The circular afternoon is now a bay
where the world in stillness rocks.
"Between going and coming..." by Octavio Paz
A stranger to fear, down the circular cave
For soothing refreshment he often had flown;
Now beside it he perched, and in silence, tho' brave,
For a matron he sees, who draws near to the stone.
"The Baya: Or The Indian Bird" by William Hayley
The semi-circular and lunar bay
Where the grey stone fall to untidily
The grey volcanic waves: no man, no tree,
Break the cold greenness of the bitten lea-
The scene the orator of memory
Already knew: forbore till now to say.
"The Bay" by Roy Fuller

In news:

Shopko Stores, through a partnership with Wishabi, is now offering customers access to a digital circular online at www.shopko.com.
Import, Export, Trade & the Circular Motion of the Economy.
Has relaunched its weekly circular , giving the Sunday promotional piece a new look and tying it into the retailer's online and mobile ­platforms.
Walgreens is following in the footsteps of the likes of Target and Walmart in offering a digital edition of its weekly advertising circular that will offer additional items through Walgreens.com and the company's mobile applications.
GOP candidates in circular firing squad.
This summarizes the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) rules agreed to by DoD, GSA, and NASA in this Federal Acquisition Circular (FAC) 2005-54.
Wal-Mart unveils Black Friday circular : See the deals.
This Macy's case study from Yahoo highlights how the retailer engaged with Yahoo audiences through a targeted and interactive pullover ad featuring a digital version of their holiday sale circular .
Circular Connectors Address High Power and Harsh Environment Applications.
Circular connectors can be used in a wide range of high power and harsh environment applications.
It's not often that a retailer's weekly sale circular inspires a column, but the recent Kmart circular gave me pause.
EAA Input on New Homebuilt Advisory Circular Helps Prevent New Regulations.
Dutch designer Chris Kabel designed this circular bench for an installation at Witte de With Center for Contemporary Art called Shared Space III.
The husband and wife hunkered in a circular blind of discarded treetops and listened.
Tropical trees will once again stand amid an island of ice in downtown San Jose, as skaters take to the unusual split circular rink for the opening of the holiday season centerpiece on Friday.
***

In science:

In this paper we show that the circular operator and each circular free Poisson operator (defined below) has a continuous family of invariant subspaces relative to the von Neumann algebra it generates.
Invariant subspaces of Voiculescu's circular operator
N and for every choice of ǫ(j ) being “∗” or no symbol, where τn is the expectation of the normalized trace and where y is a circular element.
Invariant subspaces of Voiculescu's circular operator
Voiculescu’s matrix model for the circular element is the starting point for finding invariant subspaces.
Invariant subspaces of Voiculescu's circular operator
We hasten to point out that a circular element z with normalization ψ(z ∗ z) = 1 is nothing other than a circular free Poisson element of parameter c = 1.
Invariant subspaces of Voiculescu's circular operator
In the realization (1) of the circular operator, we have that the diagonal entry aj is circular free Poisson of parameter j .
Invariant subspaces of Voiculescu's circular operator
In fact, the techniques outlined above can be employed with very little extra effort to find invariant subspaces for every circular free Poisson operator, and the proof is presented in this generality throughout.
Invariant subspaces of Voiculescu's circular operator
In §6, this upper triangular realization of the circular free Poisson element is fed into the machinery of §2 to find invariant subspaces.
Invariant subspaces of Voiculescu's circular operator
Furthermore, each Z (s, n) converges in ∗–moments to a circular element and each U (r, n) converges in ∗–moments to a Haar unitary, as n → ∞.
Invariant subspaces of Voiculescu's circular operator
Theorem 5.4, an upper triangular matrix model for a circular free Poisson element.
Invariant subspaces of Voiculescu's circular operator
Consequently, D(n) + T (n) converges in ∗–moments as n → ∞ to a circular element.
Invariant subspaces of Voiculescu's circular operator
Consequently, Dc (n) + T (n) converges in ∗–moments as n → ∞ to a circular free Poisson element of parameter c.
Invariant subspaces of Voiculescu's circular operator
An application of Theorem 5.4 shows that Y (n), and hence also Dc (n) + T (n), converges in ∗–moments as n → ∞ to a circular free Poisson element.
Invariant subspaces of Voiculescu's circular operator
Then x is a circular free Poisson element of parameter c.
Invariant subspaces of Voiculescu's circular operator
Then by Theorem 5.4, Y (nN ) converges in ∗–moments as n → ∞ to a circular free Poisson element of parameter c.
Invariant subspaces of Voiculescu's circular operator
In this section, we will apply Theorem 5.10 and the general results of §2 to exhibit invariant subspaces for a circular free Poisson element.
Invariant subspaces of Voiculescu's circular operator
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