chromosphere

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n chromosphere a gaseous layer of the sun's atmosphere (extending from the photosphere to the corona) that is visible during a total eclipse of the sun
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • n Chromosphere (Astron) An atmosphere of rare matter, composed principally of incandescent hydrogen gas, surrounding the sun and enveloping the photosphere. Portions of the chromosphere are here and there thrown up into enormous tongues of flame.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n chromosphere A rose-colored gaseous envelop around the body of the sun, through which the light of the photosphere passes, and from which the enormous red cloud-masses of flames of hydrogen, called solar protuberances, are at times thrown up. Also chromatosphere, color-sphere, and sierra.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • Chromosphere a layer of incandescent red gas surrounding the sun through which the light of the photosphere passes—also Chrōmat′osphere
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
Gr. color + E. sphere,
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
Gr. chrōmatikoschrōma, colour.

Usage

In literature:

Some of them rush through the chromosphere to a height of 80,000 miles in 15 minutes.
"A Trip to Venus" by John Munro
A third layer or envelope immediately lying over the last one is the region known as the chromosphere.
"The Outline of Science, Vol. 1 (of 4)" by J. Arthur Thomson
They are, in fact, thrown up from the chromosphere like gigantic jets of incandescent material.
"The Story of the Heavens" by Robert Stawell Ball
The identification cleared up many obscurities in chromospheric chemistry.
"A Popular History of Astronomy During the Nineteenth Century" by Agnes M. (Agnes Mary) Clerke
The outer surface of the chromosphere is not by any means even.
"Astronomy of To-day" by Cecil G. Dolmage
Chromosphere, the sun's, 124.
"A Text-Book of Astronomy" by George C. Comstock
This layer is much thinner than the chromosphere, and may be considered to form the base of the latter.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 8, Slice 10" by Various
Their light shines through the chromosphere and the spots are ruptures in this envelope.
"Astronomy" by David Todd
Above the reversing layer comes the chromosphere, a vast mass of rosy or scarlet emanations surrounding the sun to a depth of about 4000 miles.
"Man's Place in the Universe" by Alfred R. Wallace
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In science:

Among the dim sources, all types proposed as possible dim sources, i.e. soft X-ray transients in quiescence, cataclysmic variables, recycled pulsars, and chromospherically active close binaries are now detected in Chandra observations.
X-ray sources in globular clusters
Barry and a more elaborate and recent analysis by Rocha-Pinto et al. (see also references therein), measured the SFR activity of the Milky Way using chromospheric ages of late type dwarfs.
The Spiral Structure of the Milky Way, Cosmic Rays, and Ice Age Epochs on Earth
The squares with error bars are the SFR calculated using chromospheric ages of nearby stars .
The Spiral Structure of the Milky Way, Cosmic Rays, and Ice Age Epochs on Earth
For the SFR on shorter time scales, we have to rely on the cluster data (see fig. 2), or the mass distribution of nearby stars , which have a ‘finer’ resolution than the SFR calculated using chromospheric ages of nearby stars.
The Spiral Structure of the Milky Way, Cosmic Rays, and Ice Age Epochs on Earth
Chromospheric emission from Hα rarely rises above 10˚A (Mart´ın 1997), so an additional source of Hα emission must be found.
Evidence for high accretion-rates in Weak-Line T Tauri stars?
Below the mid-chromosphere, where the bright-point flux tubes are isolated and thin, we solved a non-WKB form of the kink-mode wave equations derived by Spruit (1981, 1984).
Coronal Heating versus Solar Wind Acceleration
Arrows at the top show the mid-chromospheric “merging height” of thin flux tubes into network funnels, the transition region, and the orbit of the Earth. (b) Frequencyintegrated wave amplitudes (see plot for line styles).
Coronal Heating versus Solar Wind Acceleration
The differences are small in the photosphere and low chromosphere, where strong re flection leads to nearly equal inward and outward wave power.
Coronal Heating versus Solar Wind Acceleration
Finally, we point out that the maximum in Hα emission-line flux occurs near the end of the sequence in Figure 9 (ϕ ∼ 0.5), once again indicating that the chromospheric emission is concentrated on the inner hemisphere of the companion.
New Low Accretion-Rate Magnetic Binary Systems and their Significance for the Evolution of Cataclysmic Variables
It is important to note that, while stellar chromospheric/coronal activity and rotational spin-down are intensely studied effects of mass loss from late-type stars, thus far only upper limits (.10−10 M⊙ yr−1 ) have been established for the actual wind rates (e.g., Wargelin & Drake 2001).
New Low Accretion-Rate Magnetic Binary Systems and their Significance for the Evolution of Cataclysmic Variables
To facilitate their use in estimating distances, five narrow bands were selected in regions where the flux is not changing strongly with wavelength and away from deep molecular bands, chromospheric emission lines, and terrestrial absorption features.
New Low Accretion-Rate Magnetic Binary Systems and their Significance for the Evolution of Cataclysmic Variables
Key words: magnetic fields; stars: activity, chromospheres, interiors, oscillations; surveys.
Calibrating the Solar Dynamo: Magnetic Activity Cycles of Southern Sun-like Stars
The intensity of the emission scales with the amount of non-thermal heating in the chromosphere, making these lines a useful spectroscopic proxy for the strength of, and fractional area covered by, magnetic fields .
Calibrating the Solar Dynamo: Magnetic Activity Cycles of Southern Sun-like Stars
Preston. A survey of chromospheric CA II H and K emission in field stars of the solar neighborhood.
Calibrating the Solar Dynamo: Magnetic Activity Cycles of Southern Sun-like Stars
The low chromospheric activity and slow rotation of GJ 849 are consistent with a middle–age dwarf older than 3 Gyr (Andrew West, private communication).
A Long-Period Jupiter-Mass Planet Orbiting the Nearby M Dwarf GJ849
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