chromium

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n chromium a hard brittle multivalent metallic element; resistant to corrosion and tarnishing
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • n Chromium (Chem) A comparatively rare element occurring most abundantly in the mineral chromite. Atomic weight 52.5. Symbol Cr. When isolated it is a hard, brittle, grayish white metal, fusible with difficulty. Its chief commercial importance is for its compounds, as potassium chromate, lead chromate, etc., which are brilliantly colored and are used dyeing and calico printing. Called also chrome.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n chromium Chemical symbol, Cr; atomic weight, 52.3; specific gravity, 6.8-7.3. An element belonging to the metals, obtained in the pure state as a light-green crystalline powder. The separate crystals under the microscope have a tin-white color. It is less fusible than platinum, and after fusion is harder than corundum. It oxidizes slowly in the air, but burns vividly in oxygen. Hot hydrochloric or sulphuric acid dissolves it; nitric acid does not affect it. Chromium does not occur native. It is found in the mineral crocoite or crocoisite (lead chromate), and as a sulphid in daubreelite; it occurs also in some meteoric iron, and the fine green color which makes the emerald valuable is believed to be due to chromium; but the most abundant ore of chromium is chromite or chrome-ironstone. Among its most important compounds are the oxid or sesquioxid (Cr2O3), which occurs native in chrome-ocher and chromite. It is a dull-green powder when made artificially by reduction of the chromates, and is used extensively for imparting a green color to porcelain and enamel, and somewhat as a pigment, in the form of chromic oxid, under the name of Guignet's green. Potassium bichromate (k2Cr2O7) is the salt from which most salts of chromium are prepared. It forms garnet-red crystals, which dissolve in water, making a red solution. It is largely used in dyeing and calico-printing and as an oxidizing agent; also in the carbon or other processes of photographic printing, and in a form of voltaic cell called the bichromate cell. See cell, 8. It is an active poison.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • ns Chromium a metal remarkable for the beautiful colours of its compounds
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
NL., fr. Gr. color
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
Gr. chrōmatikoschrōma, colour.

Usage

In literature:

Both are as sleek as chromium statues.
"The World's Great Men of Music" by Harriette Brower
Oxide of Chromium, Cr^{2}O^{3}.
"A System of Instruction in the Practical Use of the Blowpipe" by Anonymous
CHROMIUM (PLATE VIII, 5).
"Occult Chemistry" by Annie Besant and Charles W. Leadbeater
That which bears the poetic name of star-stone, stellite, is composed of chromium, cobalt and tungsten in varying proportions.
"Creative Chemistry" by Edwin E. Slosson
Sulphuric acid and bichromate of potassium give a green colour, oxide of chromium.
"Aids to Forensic Medicine and Toxicology" by W. G. Aitchison Robertson
What weight of ferrochromium containing 40% chromium must be added to a ton of steel to produce an alloy containing 1% of chromium?
"An Elementary Study of Chemistry" by William McPherson
Lampadius in 1796, of chromium by L.N.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 6, Slice 1" by Various
There was muffled gaiety, glitter of glass and chromium, and general bad taste in the decoration.
"Master of the Moondog" by Stanley Mullen
Chromium and vanadium have a 'stabilizing' effect, i.e.
"The New Gresham Encyclopedia. Vol. 1 Part 1" by Various
Chromium has been discovered in Tasmania also.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 2, Slice 8" by Various
Salt water would corrode all of the bright chromium.
"Voice from the Cave" by Mildred A. Wirt
Many of these contain small quantities of chromium and nickel, and are associated with soapstone, potstone, dolomite, and magnetite.
"Asbestos" by Robert H. Jones
The magnificent colour which gives extraordinary value to this gem, is probably due to chromium.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 9, Slice 3" by Various
Its colour is due to the presence of chromium, of which there may be 0.2 to 0.3 per cent present.
"The New Gresham Encyclopedia" by Various
Thus we have nickel, chromium, and tungsten steel.
"Inventions in the Century" by William Henry Doolittle
Probably the most common mineral pigments are compounds of iron, manganese, copper and chromium.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 11, Slice 5" by Various
Chromium and a number of other rare minerals are known to exist, but probably not in commercially available quantities.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 7, Slice 7" by Various
Demantoid is regarded as a lime-iron garnet, coloured probably by a small proportion of chromium.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 7, Slice 10" by Various
But the improvement may be due wholly to the considerable chromium content of these so-called vanadium steels.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 14, Slice 7" by Various
Professor F. W. Clarke found the colours due to compounds of iron, manganese and chromium.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 15, Slice 2" by Various
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In poetry:

It is forbidden to dream again;
We maim our joys or hide them:
Horses are made of chromium steel
And little fat men shall ride them.
"A Little Poem" by George Orwell
The stopped horse on his chromium pole
Stares through us; his hooves chew the breeze.
Your shirt of crisp linen
Bloats like a spinnaker. Hat brims
Deflect the watery dazzle; the people idle
As if in hospital.
"Whitsun" by Sylvia Plath

In news:

EPA official attends NASF Washington Forum to speak on chromium rule and flawed data.
View full size Some soldiers in Oregon Army National Guard are in a lawsuit against defense contractor KBR for their exposure to the carcinogen hexavalent chromium while guarding a water treatment plant in Iraq in 2003.
He spoke about his extensive health problems stemming from exposure to hexavalent chromium while serving in Iraq.
Letter from the federal Chemical Safety Board chair expressing his agencys concern about Chevrons decision to use a certain chromium alloy in pipes to be repaired at the fire-damaged Richmond refinery.
Letter from the Chevron refinery manager in Richmond explaining the companys decision to pick the chromium alloy called 9 chromium over another type of stainless steel material.
City Chromium-6 level (parts per billion).
Hexavalent chromium is the pollutant at the heart of 'Erin Brockovich'.
OEHHA works to set drinking water standard for hexavalent chromium--could be first in nation to do so.
Back in the 90s, Erin Brockovich helped bring the issue of hexavalent chromium--a cancer-causing chemical--in California's drinking water to light.
Use and weldability of high-chromium molybdenum steels.
Chromium molybdenum —its uses and fabrication requirements.
Welding chromium- molybdenum steel pipe for power plants.
Revision of A264 - 09 Specification for Stainless Chromium- Nickel Steel -Clad Plate.
Chromium Mine Tours At Soldier's Delight.
A 1917 photograph shows Choate Mine, a chromium mine at Soldiers Delight Natural Environment Area in Owings Mills.
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In science:

To improve wire-bonding, a layer of 10 nm of chromium and 80 nm of platinum is evaporated onto the bondpads, followed by a sputtered layer of 20 nm of silicon.
Probing the charge of a quantum dot with a nanomechanical resonator
Pfau, Bose-Einstein condensation of Chromium, Phys.
Gross-Pitaevskii-Poisson equations for dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate with anisotropic confinement
We selected interstitial Fe in Si (Fei ), and titanium (TiSi ), vanadium (VSi ) and chromium (CrSi ) substituting Si-site in 4H SiC.
The role of screening in the density functional applied on transition metal defects in semiconductors
Chromium needs special consideration regarding the (0|-) transition level, see text.
The role of screening in the density functional applied on transition metal defects in semiconductors
Calculation of the electronic structure of chromium We mention here that chromium (Cr) defect needs special consideration in determining w.
The role of screening in the density functional applied on transition metal defects in semiconductors
On the other hand, the magnetic response of common metallic systems (such as chromium) is tied to the low-energy excitations of electrons from filled to empty states, across the Fermi surface.
Neutron Scattering Studies of Antiferromagnetic Correlations in Cuprates
We study the effect of strong radio-frequency (rf ) fields on a chromium Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), in a regime where the rf frequency is much larger than the Larmor frequency.
Radio-frequency induced ground state degeneracy in a Chromium Bose-Einstein condensate
We demonstrate this idea by sending strong rf fields to optically trapped Bose condensed chromium atoms.
Radio-frequency induced ground state degeneracy in a Chromium Bose-Einstein condensate
Here, we observe the reduction of magnetic forces on an optically trapped chromium Bose-Einstein condensate, in presence of magnetic fields up to 100 mG.
Radio-frequency induced ground state degeneracy in a Chromium Bose-Einstein condensate
The use of strong rf fields to achieve this goal reduces significantly the BEC lifetime in the case of chromium due to strong dipole-dipole interactions.
Radio-frequency induced ground state degeneracy in a Chromium Bose-Einstein condensate
Doyle has promoted the technique of buffer-gas cooling, first on atoms like europium and chromium , and next on the CaH molecule [100].
Formation and interactions of cold and ultracold molecules: new challenges for interdisciplinary physics
For chromium atoms with a comparatively large magnetic moment of 6µB (equivalent dipole moment d = 0.056 Debye) we have ad ≈ 2.4 nm.
Condensed Matter Theory of Dipolar Quantum Gases
The 1.67 MCi source was produced by irradiating ∼ 36 kg of chromium, enriched in 50Cr, in the Silo´e reactor in Grenoble.
THE SOLAR NEUTRINO PROBLEM
The partner functions, f1,α , f2,α , and f4,α , involve atomic displacements along ˆα of the entire zinc, chromium, and oxygen sublattices, respectively.
Magnetic-induced phonon anisotropy in ZnCr$_2$O$_4$ from first principles
Nontrivial displacements within the chromium and oxygen sublattices, whose partner functions we label f3 and f5 respectively, are also possible.
Magnetic-induced phonon anisotropy in ZnCr$_2$O$_4$ from first principles
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