chlorination

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n chlorination disinfection of water by the addition of small amounts of chlorine or a chlorine compound
    • n chlorination the addition or substitution of chlorine in organic compounds
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Tomato ketchup is a good conditioner for the hair. It also helps get the greenish tinge that some blonde haired people get after swimming in water with chlorine in it
    • n Chlorination The act or process of subjecting anything to the action of chlorine; especially, a process for the extraction of gold by exposure of the auriferous material to chlorine gas.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: Researchers have developed odourless socks. The sock fabric is made by attaching molecules that contain chlorine called halamines to textile fibers
    • n chlorination The act or process of subjecting to the action of chlorin.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Joseph Priestley not only discovered oxygen, but he also discovered ammonia, carbon monoxide, hydrogen chloride, sulphur dioxide, and nitrous oxide. He was also the first person to isolate chlorine.
    • n Chlorination the process of getting gold, &c., out of ore by the use of chlorine
    • ***

Etymology

Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
Gr. chlōros, pale-green.

Usage

In literature:

Sodium and chlorin are the rarest of all known elements.
"The Skylark of Space" by Edward Elmer Smith and Lee Hawkins Garby
What does the presence of chlorine in a surface well water indicate?
"Human Foods and Their Nutritive Value" by Harry Snyder
The natural oil may frequently be differentiated from artificial benzaldehyde by the presence of chlorine in the latter.
"The Handbook of Soap Manufacture" by W. H. Simmons
A pungent smell of ether, nitrous oxide, iodine, chlorine, wet laundry and scorched gauze.
"A Book of Burlesques" by H. L. Mencken
After nitration there is no objection to a chlorine bleach.
"Researches on Cellulose" by C. F. Cross
It was good to hear that what we were swallowing was not the chlorine of a hundred stories of fiction.
"The U-boat hunters" by James B. Connolly
Chlorine in ash of plants, 55.
"Manures and the principles of manuring" by Charles Morton Aikman
Large amounts of the acid substances like chlorine and sulphur are detrimental for most purposes.
"The Economic Aspect of Geology" by C. K. Leith
Calculate the amount of chlorin.
"All About Coffee" by William H. Ukers
Membranes in the throats thickened, and lungs seemed to be eaten by the chlorine poison.
"The Story of the Great War, Volume III (of VIII)" by Various
He ordered that the guard-ship admit him to its airlock, which then was to be filled with steam and chlorine.
"Pariah Planet" by Murray Leinster
Chlorine has an effect about as described for iron, and is evident by the odor of chlorine gas.
"The Automobile Storage Battery" by O. A. Witte
At Mount Morgan the process known as chlorination has been developed on a larger scale than has elsewhere been attempted.
"The Last Voyage" by Lady (Annie Allnutt) Brassey
Either from the metal hull or from the mechanism inside it there was emitted a pungent odor resembling chlorine.
"Astounding Stories of Super-Science, May, 1930" by Various
And salt is neither dangerous to put in water like sodium, nor is it a greenish poison gas like chlorine.
"Common Science" by Carleton W. Washburne
It is a brown-black powder soluble in hydrochloric acid, chlorine being simultaneously liberated.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 6, Slice 5" by Various
The heavy chlorine gas will descend and so fill all parts of the room, and in about three hours disinfection will be complete.
"Household Organization" by Florence Caddy
There should be no more than a slight excess of iodine, and no excess of chlorine.
"Soap-Making Manual" by E. G. Thomssen
It has a strong affinity for chlorine.
"Domestic Animals" by Richard L. Allen
Salt is a compound of chlorine and a metal called sodium.
"Electricity and Magnetism" by Elisha Gray
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In poetry:

Your baby has gorn dahn the drainpipe
And the chlorine is bad for his eyes
He's havin' a swim, and it's healthy for him
He needed the exercise
"Biby's Epitaph" by Anonymous British
The brook ran yellow from the factory stinking of chlorine,
The yarn-milled called its funeral cry at noon;
Our lights looked over the Lough to the lights of Bangor
Under the peacock aura of a drowning moon.
"Carrickfergus" by Louis MacNeice

In news:

A proposal to use chlorine to kill zebra mussels if they enter New York City's reservoir system has Catskills trout fishermen upset.
A way to disinfect drinking water without the risk of chlorine 's potentially harmful side effects.
CHLORINE , widely used in developed countries to disinfect drinking water, is a mixed blessing.
Drinking-water fluoridation, which doesn't happen in Portland, deserves to be about as controversial as water chlorination, which does.
Traditionally, reservoirs would receive water from well fields and use chlorine gas from 150-lb.
PITTSBURGH (AP) — The water system at one of Pittsburgh's Veterans Affairs hospitals is being chlorinated because an unspecified number of patients have Legionnaire 's disease.
To try to reduce germs and smell, workers put white chlorine cakes in sewage flowing towards the Trickey Wash.
Para Red / Chlorinated Para Nitraniline Toner companies.
He goes on to say that with the amount of chlorine in the pool it clears out all the germs in the urine.
Chlorine plants send mercury rising.
In spring 2007, the Department of Homeland Security issued an alert about a new terrorist threat: chlorine truck bombs.
Chlorine Residual Boosting in Distribution Water.
Corey Miller loves the smell of chlorine in the morning.
They sell them by saying salt-water feels softer than traditionally chlorinated water.
The city currently diverts excess sewage by diluting it with treated water and adding chlorine.
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In science:

For example Davis’s Homestake Chlorine experiment which began data taking in 1970 consisted of 615 tons of tetrachloroethylene, and uses radiochemical techniques to determine the 37Ar production rate.
Neutrino Mass and Mixing with Discrete Symmetry
Of special note in Table 1 is the large difference, a factor of almost four (many standard deviations), between the calculated and the observed rates for the chlorine experiment and the more moderate discrepancy, a factor of two, for the neutrino-electron scattering experiment.
Summary Talk: International Symposium on Neutrino Astrophysics, Takayama/Kamioka (10/'92)
The chlorine experiment is sensitive to neutrinos above 0.8 MeV whereas Kamiokande is only sensitive to higher energy neutrinos (above 7.5 MeV).
Summary Talk: International Symposium on Neutrino Astrophysics, Takayama/Kamioka (10/'92)
If new physics is operating, the different energy sensitivities could explain the fact that the chlorine and the Kamiokande experiments differ from the standard model predictions by two and four, respectively.
Summary Talk: International Symposium on Neutrino Astrophysics, Takayama/Kamioka (10/'92)
In one year, each experiment will record three or more times the total number of neutrino events that have been counted to date in all solar neutrino experiments since the chlorine experiment began operating a quarter of a century ago.
Summary Talk: International Symposium on Neutrino Astrophysics, Takayama/Kamioka (10/'92)
Davis pointed out that the chlorine data also show no indication of a correlation with sunspots during the period in which the Kamiokande experiment was operating.
Summary Talk: International Symposium on Neutrino Astrophysics, Takayama/Kamioka (10/'92)
What’s more, the chlorine data do not indicate any correlation for the first seven year period of data taken between 1970 and 1977.
Summary Talk: International Symposium on Neutrino Astrophysics, Takayama/Kamioka (10/'92)
My view is that this seeming correlation is most likely a fluke occurrence in noisy data, but it is very important to continue the chlorine measurements to obtain information about any long-term trends or time-dependences in the data.
Summary Talk: International Symposium on Neutrino Astrophysics, Takayama/Kamioka (10/'92)
This is especially true since, as Kopylov told us, the chlorine experiment does not appear likely to be repeated.
Summary Talk: International Symposium on Neutrino Astrophysics, Takayama/Kamioka (10/'92)
There is a general agreement that with the Chlorine data averaged over the whole period some neutrino properties are called for .
Solar and atmospheric neutrinos
In order to obtain from (12) the value of the flux of the 7Be neutrinos we will assume that the contributions of CNO and pep neutrinos to the chlorine event rate RCN O ,pep are given by the LMA and LOW MSW solutions.
Implications of the SNO and the Homestake Results for the BOREXINO Experiment
In conclusion, from the recent result of the SNO experiment and the result of the Homestake experiment we have obtained the contribution of 7Be and other medium energy neutrinos to the chlorine event rate.
Implications of the SNO and the Homestake Results for the BOREXINO Experiment
The solar neutrino puzzle has been with us for over thirty years, since the Davis chlorine experiment 12 detected only about a third of the neutrinos expected on the basis of the current solar model 13 .
Lepton Photon 2001 Concluding Remarks
Part of the history is also the creation of a new field, neutrino astronomy, at Homestake with the start of the chlorine experiment in 1964.
Reference Design Project Book: NUSEL-Homestake
Arguably the field of neutrino astronomy began with the Homestake chlorine experiment, which began in 1964.
Reference Design Project Book: NUSEL-Homestake
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