cellulose

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n cellulose a polysaccharide that is the chief constituent of all plant tissues and fibers
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Alfred Nobel used a cellulose adhesive (nitrocellulose) as the chemical binder for nitroglycerin, which he used in his invention of dynamite.
    • a Cellulose Consisting of, or containing, cells.
    • n Cellulose (Chem) The substance which constitutes the essential part of the solid framework of plants, of ordinary wood, cotton, linen, paper, etc. It is also found to a slight extent in certain animals, as the tunicates. It is a carbohydrate, C6H10O5)n, isomeric with starch, and is convertible into starches and sugars by the action of heat and acids. When pure, it is a white amorphous mass. See Starch Granulose Lignin. "Unsized, well bleached linen paper is merely pure cellulose ."
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: Cellophane is not made of plastic. It is made from a plant fiber, cellulose, which has been shredded and aged.
    • cellulose Containing cells.
    • n cellulose In botany, the essential constituent of the primary wall-membrane of all cells, a secretion from the contained protoplasm, isomerous with starch in its composition, and allied to starch, sugar, and inulin. It rarely or never exists in a simple condition unmixed with coloring or mineral matters, etc.; and with age it becomes largely transformed into lignin, suberin, or mucilage. Cotton and the bleached fiber of flax and hemp are nearly pure cellulose, and in some filter-paper it is almost chemically pure. Cellulose is remarkable for its insolubility, being dissolved without change only by an ammoniacal solution of oxid of copper, from which it may be again precipitated. Under the action of concentrated or boiling acids, or of caustic alkalis, many different products are obtained, according to the method of treatment. It is changed to glucose by long boiling with dilute sulphuric or hydrochloric acid; a substance resembling parchment is obtained by treating unsized paper with cold sulphuric acid; strong nitric acid, or a mixture of nitric and sulphuric acids, converts forms of cellulose into guncotton, etc. In its unchanged condition it is not colored by iodine except usually with a faint yellowish tint, which becomes a bright blue on the addition of strong sulphuric acid. Cellulose is also said to exist in the tunics of Ascidia and in other invertebrates.
    • cellulose Formed of cellulose.
    • n cellulose A light material used as a packing in coffer-dam compartments of warships in the vicinity of the water-line. In the United States navy, cellulose from the husk of the cocoanut and that from the pith of cornstalks have been used for this purpose. See coffer-dam, 3.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • adj Cellulose containing cells
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Etymology

Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
O. Fr. celle—L. cella, conn. with celāre, to cover.

Usage

In literature:

This is done to dissolve out all the gum and resins, in order to leave the pure cellulose matter.
"The Building of a Book" by Various
In its composition it is almost purely an unlignified cellulose, and its specific gravity is 1.5.
"Textiles" by William H. Dooley
Cellulose is most difficult to dissolve, so that practically little of it is digested.
"Ontario Teachers' Manuals: Household Management" by Ministry of Education
If one's diet contains too small a percentage of cellulose or pulp material, a tendency to constipation will be noticed.
"The Biology, Physiology and Sociology of Reproduction" by Winfield S. Hall
It may also be obtained from cellulose by a similar treatment.
"Elements of Agricultural Chemistry" by Thomas Anderson
Or the sticks of cellulose, or the curved, wire device with fuzz at the ends?
"The Planet Strappers" by Raymond Zinke Gallun
Linen, cotton, and the pith of the elder and other trees are nearly pure forms of cellulose.
"The Stock-Feeder's Manual" by Charles Alexander Cameron
Another and very considerable portion enters into the composition of a substance closely related to cellulose.
"Studies of American Fungi. Mushrooms, Edible, Poisonous, etc." by George Francis Atkinson
The moisture renders the cellulose substance pliable.
"Seasoning of Wood" by Joseph B. Wagner
The best papier mache is made of pure wood cellulose.
"Makers of Many Things" by Eva March Tappan
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In news:

COLLEGE STATION – BP Biofuels and Texas AgriLife Research, part of The Texas A&M University System, have signed a three-year agreement to develop and commercialize cellulosic feedstocks for the production of advanced biofuels.
The six-inch thick concrete walls housing the projection booth in the Struthers Library Theatre are built to contain a fire from the old cellulose nitrate 35 mm film that went out of production long ago.
Engineering begins for cellulosic ethanol plant at Flambeau River Papers site in Wisconsin.
Pine trees being prepared for conversion into cellulosic gasoline and diesel fuels at KiOR's Columbus, Miss.
LifeScience PLUS Inc has introduced its proprietary 100% natural fiber cotton cellulose gauze in a new hemostatic product, BloodSTOP Hemostatic Gauze, at CVS/pharmacy stores.
University of Florida researchers have isolated two enzymes termites use to break up lignin, a tough plant material that is major problem during the production of cellulosic ethanol.
Refiners are required to blend motor fuel with cellulosic biofuel made from wood chips or the inedible parts of plants like corn cobs.
BP PLC has canceled plans to build a commercial-scale plant in Highlands County, Fla. That was to have made fuel ethanol from cellulose.
Industrial enzymes producer Novozymes and Beta Renewables will partner to produce biofuels from agricultural residues, energy crops and other cellulosic feedstocks.
Construction of the commercial-scale cellulosic bio-ethanol plant at Emmetsburg is "going fantastic," a company official said last week.
News UF Research Finds Termite Enzymes Could be Boon to Cellulosic Ethanol.
Fortress Paper Ltd announces the appointment of Andre Boucher as Chief Operating Officer of Fortress Specialty Cellulose Inc, a wholly-owned operating subsidiary which produces dissolving pulp.
Cobs will be the primary feedstock for POET's commercial cellulosic ethanol plant in Emmetsburg.
Austria-based cellulosic fiber manufacturer Lenzing AG reports that Cone Denim — a denim fabric manufacturer and a division of International Textile Group Inc (ITG), Greensboro, N.C.
Corn stover key ingredient for new DuPont cellulosic ethanol biorefinery.
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In science:

Haseth PL, Gross CA, Burgess RR, Record J M T (1977) Measurement of binding constants for protein-DNA interactions by DNA-cellulose chromatography.
Concentration and Length Dependence of DNA Looping in Transcriptional Regulation
For instance, ruminants (for example the cow) and colobine monkeys (for example the langur) independently developed a fermentative foregut where cellulose is digested with the help of bacteria.
Biological Evolution and Statistical Physics
The cellulose is the same in all types of biomass, except for the degree of polymerisation (i.e. the number of monomer units per polymer).
A review of wildland fire spread modelling, 1990-present, 1: Physical and quasi-physical models
Cellulose is an extraordinarily stable polysaccharide due to its structure: insoluble, relatively resistant to acid and base hydrolysis, and inaccessible to all hydrolytic enzymes except those from a few biological sources.
A review of wildland fire spread modelling, 1990-present, 1: Physical and quasi-physical models
Cellulose is the most widely studied substance in the field of wood and biomass combustion; by comparison, few studies have been carried out on the combustion of hemicelluloses or lignin (di Blasi, 1998), due perhaps to the relative thermal instability of these compounds.
A review of wildland fire spread modelling, 1990-present, 1: Physical and quasi-physical models
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