Its rising caudex, often creeping for several inches over bare rocks, suggests the habit of a tree fern.
"The Fern Lover's Companion" by George Henry Tilton
Caudex arhorescens cicatricibus basibusve foliorum exasperatus?
"Narrative of a Survey of the Intertropical and Western Coasts of Australia] [Volume 2 of 2]" by Phillip Parker King
The stem is short or entirely wanting, arising from a long and thick caudex.
"The Mushroom, Edible and Otherwise" by M. E. Hard
Caudex much branched; pod glabrous, acuminate or acute, twisted, beaked with a longer distinct style.
"The Manual of the Botany of the Northern United States" by Asa Gray