catalysis

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n catalysis acceleration of a chemical reaction induced the presence of material that is chemically unchanged at the end of the reaction "of the top 50 commodity chemicals, 30 are created directly by catalysis and another 6 are made from raw materials that are catalytically produced"
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • Catalysis (Chem) A process by which a chemical reaction is accelerated in the presence of certain agents which were formerly believed to exert an influence by mere contact. It is now believed that such reactions are attended with the formation of an intermediate compound or compounds, so that by alternate composition and decomposition the agent is apparenty left unchanged; as, the catalysis of making ether from alcohol by means of sulphuric acid; or catalysis in the action of enzymes (as diastase, or ptyalin) on starch.
    • Catalysis Dissolution; degeneration; decay. "Sad catalysis and declension of piety."
    • Catalysis (Chem) The catalytic force.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n catalysis Dissolution; destruction; degeneration; decay.
    • n catalysis A decomposition and new combination supposed by Berzelius and other chemists to be produced among the proximate and elementary principles of one or more compounds, by virtue of the mere presence of a substance or substances which do not of themselves enter into the reaction. It is at present believed that bodies which cause catalysis do in some way take part in the chemical reactions involved, though they are in the course of it always brought back to their original condition.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Catalysis ka-tal′i-sis (chem.) the decomposition of a compound and the recomposition of its elements, by the presence of a substance which does not itself suffer change, as in fermentation
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
ML., fr. Gr. dissolution, fr. to destroy, dissolve; kata` down, wholly + to loose
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
Gr. katalysiskata, down, lyein, to loosen.

Usage

In literature:

We call this catalysis, catalytic action, the action of presence, or by what learned name we choose.
"Medical Essays" by Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr.
We should see the building of crystals, catalysis, and the movements of unstable compounds.
"The Last Harvest" by John Burroughs
Then there is such a thing as negative catalysis.
"The Black Star Passes" by John W Campbell
The principle of catalysis is therefore very important.
"An Elementary Study of Chemistry" by William McPherson
The phenomenon known as "catalysis" is of common occurrence in both inorganic and organic chemistry.
"The Chemistry of Plant Life" by Roscoe Wilfred Thatcher
Then little by little catalysis of the hydrogen peroxide begins, with liberation of oxygen.
"The Mechanism of Life" by Stéphane Leduc
GOSS, B. C.: 1917, Light Production at Low Temperatures by Catalysis with Metal and Metallic Oxide Hydrosols.
"The Nature of Animal Light" by E. Newton Harvey
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In news:

Angled Nanosheets Speed Catalysis .
Development Speeds up In Catalysis .
Cable & Wireless Worldwide hires Catalysis .
BT's wholesale business has pooled its PR account into technology shop Catalysis Communications, dropping Hill & Knowlton and Pirate Communications in the process.
Catalysis lands BT Wholesale PR.
They are obtained through the conversion of unsaturated fatty acids (from natural oil and fat) by a combination of pressure, temperature and catalysis, followed by purification processes.
Doped cerium oxide materials, long valued and mass produced for catalysis, are now being applied to solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and other electrochemical devices like electrochemical oxygen generators (ECOGs).
According to The Daily Mail, he won the 1937 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for "his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin-C and the catalysis of fumaric acid".
The trick to our single atom alloy discovery was that we could 'see' the arrangement of atoms that was best at performing the chemical catalysis.
Transforming the chemistry of catalysis.
It discusses catalysis and processing , with an overview of the function and application of enzymes used in textile processing , and addresses process engineering and industrial enzyme applications.
Catalysis by solid acids, which includes (modified) zeolites, is of special relevance to energy applications.
Their Use in Phase-Transfer Catalysis.
Catalysis lands BT Wholesale PR.
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In science:

Jerzy Haber Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul.
Chaos in oscillatory heat evolution accompanying the sorption of hydrogen and deuterium in palladium
One of the characteristic features of this mechanism is that the tasks of coding and catalysis are being assigned to different macromolecules, namely to nucleic acids and proteins, respectively.
Multiplicity of species in some replicative systems
Inspired by Nielsen’s theory, Jonathan and Plenio investigated the behaviors of entanglement-assisted local manipulation of pure quantum states and presented a new concept called entanglement catalysis .
Basic limitations for entanglement catalysis
Afterwards, Eisert and Wilkens made further studies for catalysis of entanglement manipulation for mixed states .
Basic limitations for entanglement catalysis
This remarkable phenomenon of entanglement catalysis can be described as follows.
Basic limitations for entanglement catalysis
From this example we find that higher dimensional entangled states have exactly more powerful capability of catalysis than lower dimensional entangled states.
Basic limitations for entanglement catalysis
For instance, there is a case of “quasi-catalysis” in which the transformation from |Ψ1 i to |Ψ2i can not be preformed with certainty even under ELQCC, but the optimal probability of transformation may still be increased .
Basic limitations for entanglement catalysis
Of late, one begins to consider practical applications for entanglement catalysis.
Basic limitations for entanglement catalysis
These simulations were performed according to two different theoretical models for the catalysis cross section, one which considers it to have the same β dependence for both protons and neutrons and a second one which assumes it to be β–enhanced in case of protons.
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Finally Fig. 5 shows the upper limits vs β for different σcat : for low catalysis cross sections (σcat ≤ 10−25 cm2 ) the difference is negligible, while for higher values it becomes more important. A new analysis is in progress searching for catalysis events in the real data.
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Moreover checks are being carried out to see how the catalysis may affect the combined fast monopole analysis (Sect. 2.4).
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Figure 2: Space view (XZ and YZ in the upper and lower part, respectively) of a simulated catalysis event.
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The monopole track and the catalysis hits are clearly distinguishable.
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The MM time track is a straight line; the catalysis hits are grouped in a narrow time window.
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The distributions are exactly peaked around the input values, which means that the recontruction procedure (used in the standard streamer analysis), gives the correct β even in presence of catalysis hits.
Search for massive rare particles with MACRO
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