cartilage

Definitions

  • Cells of Cartilage
    Cells of Cartilage
  • WordNet 3.6
    • n cartilage tough elastic tissue; mostly converted to bone in adults
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Shark cartilage has been used to make artificial skin for human burn victims
    • n Cartilage (Anat) A translucent, elastic tissue; gristle.Cartilage contains no vessels, and consists of a homogeneous, intercellular matrix, in which there are numerous minute cavities, or capsules, containing protoplasmic cells, the cartilage corpuscul. See Illust under Duplication.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n cartilage A non-vascular animal tissue belonging to the connective-tissue group; gristle. Typical hyaline cartilage is a translucent substance, of firm elastic consistence, constructed of roundish cells embedded in a nearly homogeneous intercellular substance. Fibrocartilage differs in that the intercellular substance becomes fibrillated; it thus approaches ordinary connective tissue. Reticular, yellow, or elastic cartilage, as that constituting in man the epiglottis, the cornicula laryngis, the Eustachian tube, and gristly parts of the outer ear, contains interlacing elastic fibers in considerable quantity. In the two latter forms the homogeneous substance remains unchanged in the immediate vicinity of the cells, forming their hyaline capsules. Chondrin, a substance resembling gelatin, may lie extracted from cartilage by boiling. Cartilage usually persists in parts of the skeleton of adult vertebrates, as on the articular ends of bones, in the thorax, and in various passages which require to be kept open, as the windpipe, nostrils, and ears.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Cartilage kär′ti-lāj in vertebrate animals, a firm elastic substance, of a pearly whiteness, presenting to the unaided eye a uniform and homogeneous appearance: gristle
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Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
L. cartilago,; cf. F. cartilage,
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
Fr.,—L. cartilago; cog. with crates, Gr. kartalos.

Usage

In literature:

The integuments of the thorax were free from fat: the cartilages of the ribs ossified in various degrees, some perfectly, others slightly.
"Cases of Organic Diseases of the Heart" by John Collins Warren
Inflammation may ensue, and in some cases suppuration and even necrosis of cartilage may follow.
"Manual of Surgery Volume Second: Extremities--Head--Neck. Sixth Edition." by Alexander Miles
To stew lamprey as at Worcester, clean the fish carefully, and remove the cartilage which runs down the back.
"The Cook and Housekeeper's Complete and Universal Dictionary; Including a System of Modern Cookery, in all Its Various Branches," by Mary Eaton
If the latter, its consistency is always different from the pileus, resembling cartilage.
"The Mushroom, Edible and Otherwise" by M. E. Hard
In the tongue of birds, there is always a bone or cartilage; and the external membrane is dense.
"North American Medical and Surgical Journal, Vol. 2, No. 3, July, 1826" by Various
Costal cartilages not ossified.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 7" by Various
The posterior branch inserts on the proximal end of the lateral edge of the tibial cartilage.
"Myology and Serology of the Avian Family Fringillidae" by William B. Stallcup
One part of it has no name, the other is called lobos; it consists entirely of cartilage and flesh.
"Lives of Eminent Zoologists, from Aristotle to Linnæus" by William MacGillivray
The abundant supply of intervertebral cartilage has another important use, namely, it adds greatly to the elasticity of the frame.
"A Treatise on Physiology and Hygiene" by Joseph Chrisman Hutchison
Both this cartilage and the next above were partly destroyed by ulceration.
"The Life and Public Services of James A. Garfield" by Emma Elizabeth Brown
The men pierced the cartilage of the nose and ears for the wearing of ornaments of shell, iron, or other material.
"Alaska" by Ella Higginson
The cartilage is shaded and dotted, and the bony centers are light and striated.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 3, Slice 7" by Various
In some which I have seen broken, the inside, under the skin, of the young growing horns, appears like a cartilage.
"Lachesis Lapponica" by Carl von Linné
The lower part of the pinna is the lobule (e), which contains no cartilage.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 8, Slice 9" by Various
In which types of vertebrates are the joints between the skull bones bound with cartilage?
"A Guide for the Study of Animals" by Worrallo Whitney
Practically any organ or tissue may be attacked, excepting, apparently, the testis and cartilage and bone.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 9, Slice 3" by Various
This is done by making a slit through the cartilage between the nostrils.
"The World and Its People: Book VII" by Anna B. Badlam
In some Salamanders a single cartilage is directed forward, and forked in front.
"Dragons of the Air" by H. G. Seeley
The ligamentous cartilage at the symphysis pubis is broader and shorter.
"Beauty" by Alexander Walker
Cut off the cartilage at the top of the steak, otherwise the steak may curl up.
"A Course of Lectures on the Principles of Domestic Economy and Cookery" by Juliet Corson
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In news:

A plantar plate — we have one per toe — is a piece of cartilage that helps keep toes from bending too far when the foot pushes off or changes direction.
This effect may predispose patients to septal cartilage ischemia, necrosis and, eventually, perforation.
The thryoid and cricoid cartilage form the narrowest section of this airway.
Dwight Gooden underwent nearly an hour of arthroscopic surgery yesterday to repair a partial tear of the rotator cuff and a tear of cartilage in his right shoulder.
Baxter is on the DL with a displaced collarbone and fractured rib cartilage.
Self-Healing Gel Could Replace Cartilage.
The body has cartilage attachments for the second to the seventh ribs.
Arizona QB out for ' unspecified ' period with rib cartilage damage.
Arizona QB out ` unspecified ' period with rib cartilage damage.
Scientists develop 3D tissue printer that prints cartilage.
American scientists have developed a hybrid printer that prints cartilage, which could one day be implanted into injured patients to help re-grow cartilage in areas such as the joints.
Other methods of making cartilage, such as robotic systems, are also being developed to improve implantable tissue.
The authors suggest that the hollow structure and higher degradation rate of the nanofibrous hollow microspheres probably provided additional space for matrix accumulation, facilitating cartilage tissue formation.
I'm a former competitive runner who can no longer run due to issues with my knee cartilage.
Arthritis is marked by inflamed joints, due to a breakdown in the cartilage that helps them move smoothly.
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In science:

Some implications to non-destructive indentation diagnostics of cartilage degeneration are discussed.
Accounting for the thickness effect in dynamic spherical indentation of a viscoelastic layer: Application to non-destructive testing of articular cartilage
Joint cartilage is known to have very limited repair capabilities and poorly regenerates.
Accounting for the thickness effect in dynamic spherical indentation of a viscoelastic layer: Application to non-destructive testing of articular cartilage
Intensive recent research and development have brought many innovations and also first clinical results in cartilage repair.
Accounting for the thickness effect in dynamic spherical indentation of a viscoelastic layer: Application to non-destructive testing of articular cartilage
However, recent clinical, radiological and histological evaluation techniques show somehow contradictory results (Kusano et al., 2011) and this is why measuring stiffness parameters of cartilage, especially in vivo measurements, are of novel interest nowadays.
Accounting for the thickness effect in dynamic spherical indentation of a viscoelastic layer: Application to non-destructive testing of articular cartilage
However, both the confined and unconfined compression tests need sample preparation, usually cylindrically shaped specimens of cartilage, and therefore prohibit in vivo measurements.
Accounting for the thickness effect in dynamic spherical indentation of a viscoelastic layer: Application to non-destructive testing of articular cartilage
The first mathematical model allowing to measure stiffness parameters of joint cartilage layer in indentation mode with flat-ended as well as with spherical indenters was developed by Hayes et al. (1972).
Accounting for the thickness effect in dynamic spherical indentation of a viscoelastic layer: Application to non-destructive testing of articular cartilage
Because the widely used Hayes model assumes linear elasticity, it therefore does not take into consideration the fact that cartilage stiffness parameters are strain-rate dependent, and thus the Hayes model does not consider the dynamic nature of cartilage stiffness.
Accounting for the thickness effect in dynamic spherical indentation of a viscoelastic layer: Application to non-destructive testing of articular cartilage
For in vivo (or ex vivo ) measurements of cartilage stiffness and mapping a cartilage surface, a mechanical model for cartilage has to be prioritized considering dynamic properties of cartilage and measuring in indentation mode (Ronken et al., 2011).
Accounting for the thickness effect in dynamic spherical indentation of a viscoelastic layer: Application to non-destructive testing of articular cartilage
Lyyra et al., 1995; Toyras et al., 2001) allow only stiffness measurements of the cartilage surface without explicit considering E1 (ω) and δ(ω).
Accounting for the thickness effect in dynamic spherical indentation of a viscoelastic layer: Application to non-destructive testing of articular cartilage
Measuring stiffness parameters of cartilage in indentation mode with spherical tipped indenters has advantages as well as drawbacks.
Accounting for the thickness effect in dynamic spherical indentation of a viscoelastic layer: Application to non-destructive testing of articular cartilage
In view of the relative mechanical properties of cartilage and subchondral bone, it is assumed that the layer is firmly attached to a non-deformable base.
Accounting for the thickness effect in dynamic spherical indentation of a viscoelastic layer: Application to non-destructive testing of articular cartilage
Mean and standard deviation of the main parameters of two impact indentation tests (ten repetitions on one spot) for two swine cartilage samples with a spherical impactor of radius R = 0.5 mm and mass m = 1.9 g (Ronken et al., 2011).
Accounting for the thickness effect in dynamic spherical indentation of a viscoelastic layer: Application to non-destructive testing of articular cartilage
Now, let us discuss the significance of the developed mathematical approach from the viewpoint of formulating criteria for evaluation the quality of articular cartilage.
Accounting for the thickness effect in dynamic spherical indentation of a viscoelastic layer: Application to non-destructive testing of articular cartilage
The criteria (90) and (91) in their static form (with no attention paid to the dynamic nature of indentation process) have been used in a number of experimental studies on detection of degenerative changes in joint cartilage.
Accounting for the thickness effect in dynamic spherical indentation of a viscoelastic layer: Application to non-destructive testing of articular cartilage
First of all, it should be noted that the indentation scaling factors κc (α) and κs (αm ) were evaluated under the assumption of isotropy and homogeneity of articular cartilage layer.
Accounting for the thickness effect in dynamic spherical indentation of a viscoelastic layer: Application to non-destructive testing of articular cartilage
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