carbon

Definitions

  • Positive and Negative Carbons
    Positive and Negative Carbons
  • WordNet 3.6
    • n carbon a copy made with carbon paper
    • n carbon an abundant nonmetallic tetravalent element occurring in three allotropic forms: amorphous carbon and graphite and diamond; occurs in all organic compounds
    • n carbon a thin paper coated on one side with a dark waxy substance (often containing carbon); used to transfer characters from the original to an under sheet of paper
    • ***
Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Carbon monoxide can kill a person in less than 15 minutes
    • Carbon a carbon copy.
    • Carbon (Elec) A carbon rod or pencil used in an arc lamp; also, a plate or piece of carbon used as one of the elements of a voltaic battery.
    • Carbon a sheet of carbon paper.
    • Carbon An elementary substance, not metallic in its nature, which is present in all organic compounds. Atomic weight 11.97. Symbol C. it is combustible, and forms the base of lampblack and charcoal, and enters largely into mineral coals. In its pure crystallized state it constitutes the diamond, the hardest of known substances, occuring in monometric crystals like the octahedron, etc. Another modification is graphite, or blacklead, and in this it is soft, and occurs in hexagonal prisms or tables. When united with oxygen it forms carbon dioxide, commonly called carbonic acid, or carbonic oxide, according to the proportions of the oxygen; when united with hydrogen, it forms various compounds called hydrocarbons. Compare Diamond, and Graphite.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: Carbonated soda water was invented in 1767 by Joseph Priestley, the discoverer of oxygen.
    • n carbon Chemical symbol, C; atomic weight, 11.97. An element found in nature in two distinct forms: the diamond, which is extremely hard, of high specific gravity (3.5), usually colorless and transparent, with brilliant adamantine luster, and crystallizes in octahedrons; and graphite, which is very soft, of low specific gravity , black and opaque, with metallic luster, and crystallizes in hexagonal plates. See diamond and graphite. Its physical properties vary greatly with its different forms. It is combustible, burning to carbonic acid (CO2). In combination it is universally distributed through the animal and vegetable kingdoms being a constituent of every living tissue. By the action of heat on such tissues, with partial or complete exclusion of air, carbon is procured in amorphous form more or less mixed with other matters. Such products are animal charcoal, lampblack, wood charcoal, coke, and gas-carbon. The number of its compounds with the other elements is endless; and at present more compounds of carbon are known, probably, than of all other elements taken together. It is present in the atmosphere as carbon dioxid, or carbonic-acid gas, and in the same form in some mineral waters; it also appears in the salts called carbonates, as calcium carbonate in coral, in the shells of many sea-animals, in the common mineral calcite, including chalk, limestone, marble, etc., and as iron carbonate in the mineral siderite, etc.
    • n carbon The form of the diamond generally called carbonado; the black diamond.
    • n carbon In electric lighting, a carbon-point (see below).
    • carbon To put carbons in (an arc lamp).
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: If you are locked in a completely sealed room, you will die of carbon dioxide poisoning first before you will die of oxygen deprivation.
    • n Carbon kär′bon an elementary substance, widely diffused, of which pure charcoal is an example
    • ***

Quotations

  • Napoleon Hill
    Napoleon%20Hill
    “Character is to man what carbon is to steel.”
  • Napoleon Hill
    Napoleon%20Hill
    “Persistence is to the character of man as carbon is to steel.”
  • Mike Adams
    Mike Adams
    “Organic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon compounds. Biochemistry is the study of carbon compounds that crawl.”

Etymology

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
F. carbone, fr. L. carbo, coal; cf. Skr. çrā, to cook
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
Fr. carbone—L. carbon-em, coal.

Usage

In literature:

It manufactures olive oil, soap, carbon sulphide and playing-cards, and has a large iron foundry.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 3, Part 1, Slice 3" by Various
Clysters of carbonated hydrogen gas, or of other factitious airs, might be tried.
"Zoonomia, Vol. II" by Erasmus Darwin
Gases (e. g., sulphuretted hydrogen, carbon dioxide, etc.).
"The Elements of Bacteriological Technique" by John William Henry Eyre
The fixed carbon is the carbon left after the volatile matter has been driven off.
"The Economic Aspect of Geology" by C. K. Leith
The house contained a great quantity of carbonized drugs.
"Museum of Antiquity" by L. W. Yaggy
These are both varieties of copper carbonate with combined water, the azurite having less water.
"A Text-Book of Precious Stones for Jewelers and the Gem-Loving Public" by Frank Bertram Wade
Great changes may also take place in the amounts of carbon dioxide and water-vapor under certain conditions.
"Respiration Calorimeters for Studying the Respiratory Exchange and Energy Transformations of Man" by Francis Gano Benedict
Carbon was the first non-metallic element discovered in the sun.
"A Popular History of Astronomy During the Nineteenth Century" by Agnes M. (Agnes Mary) Clerke
The action of Carbonate of Ammonia on the roots of certain plants.
"Life of Charles Darwin" by G. T. (George Thomas) Bettany
Mineral oil contains a large proportion of carbon and hydrogen; it is therefore termed hydro-carbon.
"How it Works" by Archibald Williams
The carbonate of lime calculus.
"North American Medical and Surgical Journal, Vol. 2, No. 3, July, 1826" by Various
Many of the same elements have been identified in the sun and stars, such for instance as hydrogen, carbon, and iron.
"The Machinery of the Universe" by Amos Emerson Dolbear
Give correct tests for oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine, and carbon dioxide gases.
"Boy Scouts Handbook" by Boy Scouts of America
Rotten and Carbonized Separators.
"The Automobile Storage Battery" by O. A. Witte
Carbon is an element; you can get nothing out of carbon but carbon.
"The Story of a Tinder-box" by Charles Meymott Tidy
Within one hour, those invisible, death-dealing rays had destroyed everything that inhaled oxygen and exhaled carbon.
"Astounding Stories of Super-Science, August 1930" by Various
Carbon is another element; pure charcoal is carbon.
"Common Science" by Carleton W. Washburne
From the foregoing analyses, which express the percentage composition, it will be seen that carbon is by far the most important constituent of coal.
"Coal" by Raphael Meldola
All limestones are carbonates of lime, and quicklime is obtained by driving off the carbonic acid by heat.
"Principles of Geology" by Charles Lyell
Sulphide of carbon is produced here; and there are large dyeworks, and a factory for making bed-stuffing from seaweed.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 5" by Various
***

In poetry:

The moon, too, abuses her subjects,
But in the daytime she is ridiculous.
Your dissatisfactions, on the other hand,
Arrive through the mailslot with loving regularity,
White and blank, expansive as carbon monoxide.
"The Rival" by Sylvia Plath

In news:

Producing pork more efficiently potentially reduces the carbon footprint by as much as 3.6% (measured in CO2 equivalent per kilogram of pig live weight) vs barrows.
When the exhaust gases travel through the catalytic converter , the carbon monoxide and hydro carbons are converted into harmless carbon dioxide and water vapor.
Revision of D6354 - 98(2008) Standard Guide for Sampling Plan and Core Sampling of Carbon Cathode Blocks Used in Aluminum Production.
Celsius added two new non-carbonated flavors, Strawberry Kiwi and Lemon Iced Tea, to its line of fitness drinks.
CERT classes are being offered at the Carbon County Emergency Management Agency Office on the following dates: Sept 14, 20, and 27.
Microbial Carbonate Reservoir Characterization .
The presence of even a simple chemical reaction can delay or prevent the spreading of stored carbon dioxide in underground aquifers, new research from the University of Cambridge has revealed.
The carbon footprints of eight types of chillers common to college and university campuses were determined.
Papua Governor Touts Carbon-Credit Fund.
New Test Method for Analysis of Cyclohexane by Gas Chromatography (Effective Carbon Number).
1.1 The test method determines quantitatively the noncondensed hydrocarbon gases with carbon numbers ranging from C1-C5+ and nonhydrocarbon gases, such as H2, CO2, O2, N2, and CO, in gaseous samples.
Can you please explain the effect on hardenability by chromium in medium-carbon steels.
Effect of Chromium on Hardenability in Medium-Carbon Steels.
An area church that plans to expand its existing facility received the green light from the Carbon County Planning Commission.
This artwork by M. Ryder relates to humanity's carbon footprint.
***

In science:

Photochemical models (Willacy & Millar 1997) of several O-rich stars, which rely on injection of certain molecules to generate a carbon-rich chemistry at large radii, succeed in reproducing the observed values of certain molecules but fail to reproduce some molecular abundances, in particular that of HCN.
HCN in the inner envelope of {chi} Cygni
In carbon stars, such transitions are detected in the inner regions of the winds (eg.
HCN in the inner envelope of {chi} Cygni
Cold evolved stars: in the cold atmospheres of evolved giants, dust grains can form and drive a strong stellar wind, in particular graphite grains from carbon stars and silicate grains in OH-IR stars.
High-Redshift Galaxies: The Far-Infrared and Sub-Millimeter View
Type-II SN are found to be the main producers of silicate dust in a galaxy, while carbon dust is due to lower mass (2-5 M⊙ ) stars.
High-Redshift Galaxies: The Far-Infrared and Sub-Millimeter View
For stars heavier than the sun, theoretical models show that the CNO (carbon-nitrogen-oxygen) cycle of nuclear fusion is the dominant source of energy generation.
How the sun shines
Ordinary carbon, 12C, serves as a catalyst in this set of reactions and is regenerated.
How the sun shines
Soon after the discovery of carbon nanotubes,1 it was recognized that these compounds can have electronic properties ranging from semiconducting to metallic, depending on the details of their atomic structure (see chapter 19 in Ref. 2).
Metal-Boron Nanotubes
One approach for connecting carbon nanotube devices could be the use of other metallic nanotubes that function as wires on the same length scale.
Metal-Boron Nanotubes
By comparing graphite and the (6,6) carbon nanotube (Fig. 2(a)), we get a realistic measure for the energetic difference between comparable carbon nanotubes and their layered reference structure.
Metal-Boron Nanotubes
Many real-world networks are found to have highly skewed degree distributions, such that most vertices have only a small number of connections to others, but there are a few, like Yahoo and CNN in the Web, or ATP and carbon dioxide in biochemical reaction networks, which are very highly connected.
Are randomly grown graphs really random?
This picture is in a dramatic disagreement with both a monotonic distribution of the initial masses of mainsequence stars and the monotonic distribution of of masses of carbon and iron cores that are developed during nuclear evolution of massive stars.
Why NS and BH mass distribition is bimodal?
If a massive star is deprived of its hydrogen envelope during evolution, its carbon core is observed as a Wolf-Rayet star.
Why NS and BH mass distribition is bimodal?
Both the carbon and iron cores depend monotonically on the initial masses of the stars.
Why NS and BH mass distribition is bimodal?
Using data from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS), we identify a population of infrared carbon (IR C) stars with J−KS ≥ 2 in the Milky Way.
An Upper Limit to the Age of the Galactic Bar
We know that infrared carbon (IR C) stars reliably map out the Milky Way bar (Skrutskie et al. 2001, this paper).
An Upper Limit to the Age of the Galactic Bar
***