# bookkeeping

## Definitions

• WordNet 3.6
• n bookkeeping the activity of recording business transactions
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
• Interesting fact: "Bookkeeper" is the only word in English language with three consecutive double letters
• n Bookkeeping The art of recording pecuniary or business transactions in a regular and systematic manner, so as to show their relation to each other, and the state of the business in which they occur; the art of keeping accounts. The books commonly used are a daybook cashbook journal, and ledger. See Daybook Cashbook Journal, and Ledger.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
• n bookkeeping The art of recording pecuniary transactions in a regular and systematic manner; the art of keeping accounts in such a manner as to give a permanent record of business transactions from which the true state or history of one's pecuniary affairs or mercantile dealings may at any time be ascertained. Properly kept books show what a merchant has, what he owes, and what is owing to him, as well as what sums he has received and paid, the losses he has incurred, etc. Books are kept according to one of two chief methods, viz., by single or by double entry. The former is more simple and less perfect than the latter, and is now in use chiefly in retail business. In bookkeeping by single entry, three books, a day-book, a cash-book, and a ledger, are commonly used, but the essential book is the ledger, containing accounts under the names of the persons with whom a trader deals, goods or money received from any one of them being entered on one side of the account, called the credit side, and goods sold or money paid to that person being entered on the opposite or debit side of the account. In bookkeeping by double entry, the ledger accounts are of two kinds, personal accounts such as those just described, and book-accounts, in which the commodities dealt in are made the subjects of separate accounts, and have a debit and a credit side, as in personal accounts. Thus, if a trader purchase 100 bales of cotton from A. B., the account in the ledger headed A. B. is credited with 100 bales of cotton, so much, while the account headed Cotton is debited with the same quantity and amount; should the trader sell 10 bales to C. D., the account headed C. D. is debited with 10 bales at so much, and the account headed Cotton is credited with 10 bales; and so on. These book-accounts are based on the principle that all money and articles received become debtors to him from whom or to that for which they are received, and, on the other hand, all those who receive money or goods from us become debtors to cash or to the goods. In this way every transaction is entered in the ledger on the creditor side of one account and on the debtor side of another. The books used in double entry vary in number and arrangement according to the nature of the business and the manner of recording the facts. Transactions as they take place from day to day are generally recorded in such books as the stock-book, cash-book, bill-book, invoice-book, and sales-book, or they may all be recorded in order in a waste-book or day-book. Upon these books or additional documents are based the journal and ledger. The former contains a periodical abstract of all the transactions recorded in the subordinate books or in documents not entered in these, classified into debits and credits, while the latter contains an abstract of all the entries made in the former, classified under the heads of their respective accounts.
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## Usage

### In literature:

Never had she earned less than twenty dollars a week, starting out as a bookkeeper.
"Working With the Working Woman" by Cornelia Stratton Parker
The girl with a turn for keeping accounts might become a visiting bookkeeper.
"The Canadian Girl at Work" by Marjory MacMurchy
There must be offices, clerks, bookkeepers, porters, runners, etc.
"Ocean Steam Navigation and the Ocean Post" by Thomas Rainey
They were principally clerks in shops or under-bookkeepers.
"The Uncalled" by Paul Laurence Dunbar
Alfons Diruf loved this socialist bookkeeper, after a fashion.
"The Goose Man" by Jacob Wassermann
A shabby man like a broken-down bookkeeper, silent and diligent and afraid.
"The Job" by Sinclair Lewis
Former bookkeepers emerge as demolitions men.
"The Armed Forces Officer" by U. S. Department of Defense
The bookkeeper told me I could sleep on the lounge, but you can have it, and I will turn in on the floor.
"Peck's Sunshine Being a Collection of Articles Written for Peck's Sun, Milwaukee, Wis. - 1882" by George W. Peck
Oliver wondered whether his bookkeeper really tried to avoid him.
"A Collection of Stories, Reviews and Essays" by Willa Cather
Just at this moment he saw the bookkeeper returning.
"The Story of Leather" by Sara Ware Bassett
At another desk was a young fellow of eighteen, bearing a marked resemblance to the head bookkeeper.
"Luke Walton" by Horatio Alger
Once a new bookkeeper in our office saw the General's old account for paper.
"In Our Town" by William Allen White
But he had a system of mental bookkeeping.
"The Prisoner" by Alice Brown
Bookkeepers, plantation, $100 to$175, house and firewood furnished.
"The Hawaiian Islands" by The Department of Foreign Affairs
She could not persuade him to smoke, or to buy new clothes before the old ones grew too shabby for so nice a man as a bookkeeper is apt to be.
"In a Little Town" by Rupert Hughes
He's my new bookkeeper.
"The Wall Street Girl" by Frederick Orin Bartlett
The manufacturers' service record systems are often somewhat complicated, and require considerable bookkeeping.
"The Automobile Storage Battery" by O. A. Witte
Typesetting and bookkeeping are in some instances beginning to be open to them.
"Household Papers and Stories" by Harriet Beecher Stowe
The office-door again opened and the bookkeeper entered.
"Blue Goose" by Frank Lewis Nason
Nobody can find from your bookkeeping how matters were in that business during those years.
"The Price of the Prairie" by Margaret Hill McCarter
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### In news:

If software can track your orders, why can't it do your bookkeeping as well.
Bookkeeping for the department was turned over to the outside company that conducted the annual audits, and a new internal auditor was brought in, he said.
Since Sylvan has fewer than a dozen employees at each new company, the bookkeeping takes about one day a month, he says.
Roderick's Payroll & Bookkeeping Services.
Bookkeeping & Tax Preparation Services in Westerly, RI.
It is amazing to me how incredibly tone-deaf President Barack Obama is when it comes to discussing financial statements, accounting basics and bookkeeping terms.
Proposed classified reductions include 3 regular parapros, 13 special education parapros, 17.5 custodians and 1 secretary/bookkeeper.
Texas employer says Reed was hardworking, diligent bookkeeper.
Yet the invention of double-entry bookkeeping, which originated in Italy more than six centuries ago, is one of the great achievements of Western civilization.
They are from left, Kathy Anderson – office manager and bookkeeper, Shannon Jennings – dental assistant.
(AP) — West Virginia Auditor Glen Gainer has been re-elected to his sixth term as the state's official bookkeeper.
The answer is, well, Hollywood bookkeeping and the strange ways studios spend money.
Even though they dispute some Enron-type bookkeeping by rival KPRC, Channel 11 didn't have the best of sweeps months in May So, it appears, they are taking things to a new level: hard-core pornography.
CISSNA PARK — The Iroquois County sheriff's office has been asked to investigate "some of the financial matters of the village" in the wake of the firing of Cissna Park's collector and bookkeeper, Sheriff Derek Hagen said Monday.
Equinox Owner-Operator Solutions, a technology-driven business services firm that offers truck drivers carrier-integrated mobile and online bookkeeping, tax, and advisory services, launched a new Driver Placement Program.
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### In science:

In what follows, K will denote a positive universal constant that may vary from line to line; by a careful bookkeeping of the forthcoming computations, one sees that such a constant K can be taken to have the form provided in Remark 2.4.
Portmanteau inequalities on the Poisson space: mixed regimes and multidimensional clustering
Some bookkeeping shows that the big-O constant of the run time of the algorithm is ca. 15.
A Randomized Parallel Algorithm with Run Time $O(n^2)$ for Solving an $n \times n$ System of Linear Equations
These results generalize to all invariant models for a random complex tensor.47 The colors arise as a canonical bookkeeping device labeling the indices of the tensor.
A review of the large N limit of tensor models
The present note provides a generalization (Theorem 2.2) of Dillon’s bent functions involving groups, using what amount to partial spreads and proved using elementary bookkeeping but no exponential sums.
Bent functions generalizing Dillon's partial spread functions
D0-brane Examples remind us of the connection between C and {Ak }n k=0 (this will be further explored later), i.e., different sets of coupling constants will yield Actions that will be convergent under distinct cycles C, and τ’s role is to perform this bookkeeping.
Complex Path Integrals and the Space of Theories
With slight alterations, most of our results remain true without this assumption, but the extra bookkeeping complicates the arguments.
Ghost numbers of Group Algebras
The toolbox of statistical mechanics consists of various methods and tricks to perform this reduction from the microscopic to a macroscopic level, which are based on clever ways to do the bookkeeping of probabilities.
Statistical Mechanical Analysis of the Dynamics of Learning in Perceptrons
When we do the bookkeeping necessary for the O(r2 A) difference between the metric coeﬃcients gij and δij , the we obtain contributions bounded by | ˆX || ˆY |(|F | + rA |∇F |).
Simple Type and the Boundary of Moduli Space
Of course, the bookkeeping will be more complicated.
Series expansion and computer simulation studies of random sequential adsorption
The number of free parameters is constrained by large-NC bookkeeping.
Baryons 2002: Outlook
This work is more of bookkeeping kind than of deep research.
Normalized Leonard pairs and Askey-Wilson relations
ActNuclide ob jects can be retrieved from the target and product list to take care of any bookkeeping required for chained decay algorithms.
ACTIVIA: Calculation of Isotope Production Cross-sections and Yields
The conservative bookkeeping of quark masses as two chiral powers, mq = O(p2 ), is adopted, as in (see also ).
Chiral Effective Lagrangian in the large-Nc limit: the nonet case
The low-energy effective action is a convenient bookkeeping device to encode the symmetries of the underlying theory - QCD -, which automatically incorporates all the unitarity features of quantum ﬁeld theory.
Chiral Effective Lagrangian in the large-Nc limit: the nonet case
The bookkeeping on the semileptonic B decays now is good enough to determine that after D, D∗ , and D∗∗ ﬁnal states are accounted for, there is still a couple of percent of branching ratio into the aforementioned channels 26,27,28,29,11 .
CP and B Physics: Progress and Prospects
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