• WordNet 3.6
    • n biretta a stiff cap with ridges across the crown; worn by Roman Catholic clergy
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • n Biretta Same as Berretta.
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Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
    • n biretta Originally, any small cap worn as distinctive of a trade or profession; afterward, a scholastic cap, or such as was worn indoors by members of the learned professions; now, in the Roman Catholic Church, the ecclesiastical cap. This last is square, and has three and sometimes four horns or projections on top, crossing it at equal angles, and frequently having a tuft or tassel where the horns meet in the middle. For priests and the lower orders its color is black, and for bishops also, at least in Rome, though elsewhere they commonly wear one of violet, corresponding with the color of the cassock; for cardinals it is red. It seems to have been introduced in offices of the church when the amice ceased to be worn over the head in proceeding to and from the altar at mass.
    • n biretta BY extension, a Tunis cap; a smoking-cap.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • n Biretta bir-et′a a square cap worn by clergy—by priests, black; bishops, purple; cardinals, red.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
It. berretta—Low L. birretum, a cap.


In literature:

Father Sergius straightened his mantle, put on his biretta, and went circumspectly through the crowd.
"Father Sergius" by Leo Tolstoy
His biretta was still upon his head; his eyes were open, and the fret and passion manifested by his face in life had entirely left it.
"The Grey Room" by Eden Phillpotts
The priest came out with his purple velvet biretta on his head, adjusted his hair, and knelt down with an effort.
"War and Peace" by Leo Tolstoy
He imagined that on the strength of my credit he could procure the biretta for himself.
"The Memoirs of Madame de Montespan, Complete" by Madame La Marquise De Montespan
The Druids had put aside the oak leaves and put on the biretta.
"The Untilled Field" by George Moore
He wore a gown and large Geneva bands, like a Presbyterian minister; on his head he had a kind of biretta.
"Library Of The World's Best Literature, Ancient And Modern, Vol 4" by Charles Dudley Warner
Then came a large man with bold features and dark complexion, wearing a purple robe edged with red and a red biretta.
"The Eternal City" by Hall Caine
He wore Spanish boots and a velvet biretta, all very gallant.
"Lucretia Borgia" by Ferdinand Gregorovius
He had donned his cassock, and a shining silver crucifix was on his breast, and his biretta at his feet.
"Sonnie-Boy's People" by James B. Connolly
He sighed, but resigning himself to the inevitable, lifted his biretta as he came up to the door.
"Earl Hubert's Daughter" by Emily Sarah Holt
And Norma here works in a bookstore, up the Avenue a bit, Biretta's.
"The Beloved Woman" by Kathleen Norris
Then the old vihodar took his biretta from his head, doffed his coat, and set about accomplishing his masterpiece.
"Pretty Michal" by Mór Jókai
The pope first invests him with the rochet and red biretta, but there is no formal ceremony.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 3" by Various
The figure was gowned in black, and the head crowned with a Spanish biretta with high-pointed corners.
"The Red Derelict" by Bertram Mitford
Upon the head was a biretta of black velvet.
"House of Torment" by Cyril Arthur Edward Ranger Gull
On our heads we wore a fascinating "biretta," or cap with a tall feather.
"A Tatter of Scarlet" by S. R. Crockett
The priest's cap or biretta was sometimes employed to instal him in a chaplainry or benefice.
"Legal Lore" by Various
We wandered into a large courtyard and to us came a fat priest wearing a biretta.
"Poor Folk in Spain" by Jan Gordon
It was Casteno, who, this time, was dressed in an ordinary Roman cassock, and carried a biretta.
"The Hunchback of Westminster" by William Le Queux
A close cap of fine linen was worn beneath, so that when the biretta was raised his head should be covered as a mark of dignity.
"Venice and its Story" by Thomas Okey

In poetry:

She used to hide my battered hats; my old birettas, too,
Just when I had them broken in, would disappear from view.
I wondered where my wardrobe went, until by chance I'd seen
A tramp in full pontificals subscribed by Josephine.
"Josephine" by John O Brien
She watched His Lordship's portly form pass proudly o'er the mat,
His Majesty the curate next, with gloves and shiny hat;
I'd stuck an old biretta on, that better days had seen;
She came and dragged it off my head-ah, wisha, Josephine!
"Josephine" by John O Brien

In science:

Biretta et al., New Astronomy Reviews, in press (astro-ph/9909201).
A Moderate Cluster Cooling Flow Model
For M87, the magnetic and energetic structures are better constrained, but there are other issues, for example the observed superluminal motion in several knots (Biretta et al. 1999a,b) and the evolution of physical conditions in those components.
Revealing the Energetics and Structure of AGN Jets
Based on HST observations of the superluminal motion in the jet of M 87, Biretta et al. (1999) concluded that the position angle of the jet is < 19◦ from our line-of-sight.
Feedback under the microscope II: heating, gas uplift, and mixing in the nearest cluster core
On the other hand, the Blandford & Payne mechanism is consistent with the following two recent observations: 1) the large opening angle of ∼60◦ of the jet in M87 (Junor, Biretta & Livio, 1999) which seems to be the two dimensional image of a jet with a magnetic polar field angle ≥30◦ .
Microquasars: Open Questions and Future Perspectives
Biretta et al. (2002) find that the initial collimation of the non-thermal jet in the galaxy M87 of the Virgo cluster takes place on a scale of 30-100 RS , which is consistent with poloidal collimation by an accretion disk.
Microquasars as sources of high energy phenomena
Junor, Biretta & Livio 1999), and Chandra (e.g.
The Phenomena of High Energy Astrophysics
One example of interest is the observation of M87 by Junor & Biretta (1995) which shows the jet in M87 exists and is apparently well-collimated down to distances ∼ 100 Schwarzchild radii (∼ 1016 cm) from the central black hole.
Workshop Summary for Cracow 1997: Relativistic Jets in AGNs