• Back cover of the book
    Back cover of the book
  • WordNet 3.6
    • n backing the act of providing approval and support "his vigorous backing of the conservatives got him in trouble with progressives"
    • n backing something forming a back that is added for strengthening
    • n backing financial resources provided to make some project possible "the foundation provided support for the experiment"
    • ***

Additional illustrations & photos:

back endpaper back endpaper
Back Fly Leaf Back Fly Leaf
Will you get the twopence back Will you get the twopence back

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: Smokers are twice as likely to develop lower back pain than non-smokers
    • Backing Support or aid given to a person or cause.
    • Backing That which is behind, and forms the back of, anything, usually giving strength or stability.
    • Backing The act of moving backward, or of putting or moving anything backward.
    • Backing (Bookbinding) The preparation of the back of a book with glue, etc., before putting on the cover.
    • ***
Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia
  • Interesting fact: The hydra, which is related to the jellyfish, can grow its body back in a couple of days if it is cut in half
    • n backing Support, physical or moral; supporters or backers collectively.
    • n backing The address of a letter.
    • n backing Something placed at or attached to the back of something else to support, strengthen, or finish it; the act of providing anything with such a support. Especially— A layer or layers of timber, generally teak, on which the iron plates of armor-clad ships are bolted.
    • ***
Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
  • Interesting fact: The cross bow was invented by the Chinese and records of its usage goes back to as far as the Three Kingdom Period (220 a.d.-280 a.d.).
    • Backing support at the back: mounting of a horse: the action of putting back: a body of helpers: anything used to form a back or line the back
    • ***


  • Source Unknown
    Source Unknown
    “A flatterer is one who says things to your face that he wouldn't say behind your back.”
  • Henry Ward Beecher
    “Keep a fair-sized cemetery in your back yard, in which to bury the faults of your friends.”
  • Steffi Graf
    Steffi Graf
    “I don't ever look back. I look forward.”
  • Jack Canfield
    Jack Canfield
    “When you're nice to people, they want to be nice back to you.”
  • Anthony Norvell
    Anthony Norvell
    “Plant a kernel of wheat and you reap a pint; plant a pint and you reap a bushel. Always the law works to give you back more than you give.”
  • John Ruskin
    “Give little love to a child, and you get a great deal back.”


Back burner - If an issue is on the back burner, it is being given low priority.
Back foot - (UK) If you are on your back foot, you are at a disadvantage and forced to be defensive of your position.
Back number - Something that's a back number is dated or out of fashion.
Back the wrong horse - If you back the wrong horse, you give your support to the losing side in something.
Back to back - If things happen back to back, they are directly one after another.
Back to square one - If you are back to square one, you have to start from the beginning again.
Back to the drawing board - If you have to go back to the drawing board, you have to go back to the beginning and start something again.
Back to the salt mines - If someone says they have to go back to the salt mines, they have to return, possibly unwillingly, to work.
Back to the wall - If you have your back to the wall, you are in a difficult situation with very little room for manoeuvre.
Be on the pig's back - If you're on the pig's back, you're happy / content / in fine form.
Behind someone's back - If you do something behind someone's back, you do it without telling them.
Break the back of the beast - If you break the back of the beast, you accomplish a challenge.
By the back door - If something is started or introduced by the back door, then it is not done openly or by following the proper procedures.
Cast your mind back - If somebody tells you to cast your mind back on something, they want you to think about something that happened in the past, but which you might not remember very well, and to try to remember as much as possible.
Fall off the back of a lorry - (UK) If someone tries to sell you something that has fallen of the back of a lorry, they are trying to sell you stolen goods.


Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
A.S. bæc, Sw. bak, Dan. bag.


In literature:

It would be going back, right back in the trap I've just come out of.
"The Best Short Stories of 1921 and the Yearbook of the American Short Story" by Various
He was broken, of course, and slunk back to London.
"The Four Feathers" by A. E. W. Mason
Woman go up north en leave her things here en tell me if she ain' come back, I could have dem en she ain' come back yet.
"Slave Narratives Vol. XIV. South Carolina, Part 1" by Various
His mistress brings him back to the edge of town and starts him back for the fort.
"A Journal From Our Legation in Belgium" by Hugh Gibson
Impudently she tilted her chin back toward the puncher.
"Steve Yeager" by William MacLeod Raine
Back and still back.
"The Triumph of John Kars" by Ridgwell Cullum
It was like looking back on another girl, or like a woman looking back on a child.
"The Emigrant Trail" by Geraldine Bonner
They went back to Georgia.
"Slave Narratives: a Folk History of Slavery in the United States From Interviews with Former Slaves" by Work Projects Administration
When Max Elliot came back they gathered round the fire, no longer split up into duets, and the conversation was general.
"The Way of Ambition" by Robert Hichens
He might come back to the cabin in a month or so; he might not come back at all unless he heard from her.
"North of Fifty-Three" by Bertrand W. Sinclair
Back and forth, back and forth he trudged, beating down the loose snow for the runners.
"The Yukon Trail" by William MacLeod Raine
How many of those men will ever come back?
"The Great War As I Saw It" by Frederick George Scott
She pressed back her head, her mind was driven back to sleep.
"The Rainbow" by D. H. (David Herbert) Lawrence
I won't be back till I can come back as master of this house.
"Shaman" by Robert Shea
I expect my friend back from abroad daily, he may have come back now.
"My Secret Life, Volumes I. to III." by Anonymous
Only, unlike the echo, he came back louder than he went, and more positive.
"When Ghost Meets Ghost" by William Frend De Morgan
Her old coachman sat on the box with bent back and urged the horses to a trot.
"The German Classics of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries" by Various
He sent his horse back.
"Boys' Book of Frontier Fighters" by Edwin L. Sabin
The hat of the elder girl was brushed back, displaying a forehead upon which shone the very spirit of the unshackled.
"The Plow-Woman" by Eleanor Gates
I can only repeat that it is all my fault, and that therefore, if Mrs. Torrence goes back, nobody is going back with her but me.
"A Journal of Impressions in Belgium" by May Sinclair

In poetry:

I follow and I follow,
My heart upon the rack!
I follow to Jerusalem–
The long road stretches back
"Out Of Babylon" by Isabel Ecclestone Mackay
When I beheld a rouseabout
Who lay upon his back
Beside a little house about
A furlong from the track.
"Upon the Road to Rockabout" by C J Dennis
But O, deluded man, I did
My back upon him turn;
Eternal life I did not heed,
For which I now do mourn.
"Of Hell And The Estate of Those Who Perish" by John Bunyan
And if now the skies look black,
All the past behind my back
Is a bright and blessed track;
Never mind!
"Never Mind!" by Martin Farquhar Tupper
The beggar took the baby,
Wrapped it in a shawl,
"Bring her back," the lady said,
"Next time you call."
"Vain And Careless" by Robert Graves
As if your fed sarcophagus
Spared flesh and skin,
You come back face to face with us,
The same Faustine.
"Faustine" by Algernon Charles Swinburne

In news:

She's back to let us know she loves friendly drunk people, so knock a few back and hug out her latest sexy pics below.
State Senate candidate George Latimer has scored the backing of former NYC Mayor Ed Koch, who has in the past broken with his party to back local candidates.
It's the first time the Tigers have gone to the playoffs in back-to-back seasons since the 1934-1935 seasons.
It's a good idea for you to step back a little and see if you can get your friends to watch your back.
Don't bring back, don't bring back Please don't bring back my Job from across the sea.
Don't bring back, don't bring back my job, The government is going to take care of me.
It's rare that an NBA coach actually looks forward to playing back-to-back games.
Back when I realized I needed to share the farm and llamas with others, back when I first began to invite strangers in.
On back-to-back plays Wednesday night, the three newly painted high-rises hovering over downtown Los Angeles came to life.
After starting the season 18 and 0 the UNK Volleyball team ran into a little rough patch losing back to back games against Wayne State and Truman State.
A few weeks back, Loris running back Levi Moody predicted a rematch with Dillon.
"It gets the kids back to school and the parents back to work," said Pariser.
0"As you lunge down, let the back foot slide back with slow control across the floor so that you really engage your glute muscles, and use the same slow control as you push back up to standing," adds Smith.
Kristin Armstrong is back in the Olympics — back on her bike chasing gold after retirement and motherhood and injury, back where she told others she would never be again.
Back-to-back swells kick off 2012 on the West Coast more.

In science:

The neutrinos are emitted αβ Mαβ |να ((cid:126)p1 ) back to back so only one of them can reach us.
Proceedings of the first workshop on Flavor Symmetries and consequences in Accelerators and Cosmology (FLASY2011)
By quickly switching back the endcap voltages to their proper values, the ion moves back to its original position within 2 ms and starts colliding with the atoms, kicking them out of the trap.
An apparatus for immersing trapped ions into an ultracold gas of neutral atoms
We say that a plan P 0 ∈ Plans(Π0 ) is a back-on-track repair of P iff there is a decomposition of P 0 , such that P 0 = P back · P [i..∞] for some i ≤ |P |. P 0 = P back · P [i..∞] is said to be a proper back-on-track repair iff |P [i..∞]| > 0. I.e., P 0 preserves some non-empty suffix of P .
Decentralized Multi-agent Plan Repair in Dynamic Environments
Informally, the back-on-track approach tries to preserve a suffix of the original plan and prefix it with a newly computed plan P back starting in sf and leading to some state along the execution of P in the ideal environment.
Decentralized Multi-agent Plan Repair in Dynamic Environments
Figure 7: Average throughput while writing 40 different files back-to-back in the fixed block configuration.
GPUs as Storage System Accelerators
First, shields of the steel facing were examined. In Fig. 8 two “photos” of penetrated shields are shown. The previous facing and backings are examined (excluding Et for backings, which varied as shown in the table inside the figure).
Numerical simulation of high-speed penetration-perforation dynamics in layered armor shields
In particular the agent, in general, has no direct way of going back to where it came from: after a move, it has no immediate way of distinguishing the arc that leads back to its previous location.
Simple Agents Learn to Find Their Way: An Introduction on Mapping Polygons
After moving along an edge with label (a, b), a look-back agent can back-track its move by moving along the arc with label (b, a).
Simple Agents Learn to Find Their Way: An Introduction on Mapping Polygons
Suppression of back-to-back hadron pairs at forward rapidity in d+Au Collisions at √sN N = 200 GeV.
sPHENIX: An Upgrade Concept from the PHENIX Collaboration
The code’s first developments date back to mid 2005 and production’s first release dates back to end 2006.
Sophie, an FDTD code on the way to multicore, getting rid of the memory bandwidth bottleneck better using cache
We use back-and-forth to construct a bijection between the vertex sets of Γ and R, but when going back from R to Γ, we only require that nonadjacencies should be preserved.
The random graph
With the back-action cooling or self cooling, there is self modification in the dynamics of the mechanical system as the off resonant operation of the cavity results in the retarded dynamical back-action on the system [9, 18–21].
Achieving the Quantum Ground State of a Mechanical Oscillator using a Bose-Einstein Condensate with Back-Action and Cold Damping feedback schemes
The back-reflecting mirror is continuously moved back-and-forth to avoid any phase correlations between of the signal and the noise originating from higher-order photon emissions.
Solving systems of linear equations on a quantum computer
In the CSMA protocol each node attempts to access the medium after a certain back-off time, but nodes that sense activity of interfering nodes freeze their back-off timer until the medium is sensed idle.
Queues with random back-offs
These three modes can be understood as follows: (i) The case ψ(i) = 1/(i + 1) represents the balanced regime, in which the heavy-traffic behavior is influenced by both the system behavior without back-offs, and the back-off periods.
Queues with random back-offs