atomic theory

Definitions

  • WordNet 3.6
    • n atomic theory (chemistry) any theory in which all matter is composed of tiny discrete finite indivisible indestructible particles "the ancient Greek philosophers Democritus and Epicurus held atomic theories of the universe"
    • n atomic theory a theory of the structure of the atom
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Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    • Atomic theory etc. See under Atomic Binary, etc.
    • Atomic theory (Chem) teaches that chemical combinations take place between the supposed ultimate particles or atoms of bodies, in some simple ratio, as of one to one, two to three, or some other, always expressible in whole numbers.
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Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
    • Atomic theory the hypothesis that all chemical combinations take place between the ultimate particles of bodies, uniting each atom to atom, or in proportions expressed by some simple multiple of the number of atoms
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Etymology

Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
Gr. atomosa, not, temnein, tamein, to cut. See Atom.

Usage

In literature:

Such was the foundation of the atomic theory of Democritus.
"The World's Greatest Books--Volume 14--Philosophy and Economics" by Various
They tried to elucidate it by means of the atomic theory, which fairly swamped them.
"Bouvard and Pécuchet" by Gustave Flaubert
He developed the atomic theory of Leucippus.
"The Apologia and Florida of Apuleius of Madaura" by Lucius Apuleius
A review of current theories concerning Atoms, Apes, and Men.
"Life of Charles Darwin" by G. T. (George Thomas) Bettany
Interaction and the Atomic Theory.
"Introduction to the Science of Sociology" by Robert E. Park
But Epicurus seems to have worked out the Atomic Theory more in detail, as we have it expounded in Lucretius' magnificent poem.
"Five Stages of Greek Religion" by Gilbert Murray
Then he became a member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences and broached his famous atomic theory.
"The Scrap Book. Volume 1, No. 2" by Various
It is new in the sense in which Schwann's Cell Theory was new to Physiology, or Dalton's Atomic Theory to Chemistry.
"Malplaquet" by Hilaire Belloc
Different kinds of matter must be explained, in any atomic theory, by the shape, size, and position of the atoms of which they are composed.
"A Critical History of Greek Philosophy" by W. T. Stace
But logical atomism was implicit even in this theory.
"Creative Intelligence" by John Dewey, Addison W. Moore, Harold Chapman Brown, George H. Mead, Boyd H. Bode, Henry Waldgrave, Stuart James, Hayden Tufts, Horace M. Kallen
Atomic theory, suggested by Democritus, i.
"History of the Intellectual Development of Europe, Volume II (of 2)" by John William Draper
This, it seems to me, is a confirmation of the atomic theory of electricity so far as it means anything.
"Electricity and Magnetism" by Elisha Gray
And his chemistry was based on the atomic theory which Bacon rejected.
"History of Modern Philosophy" by Alfred William Benn
Apart from the atomic theory there is no obvious reason why this should be so.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 2, Slice 8" by Various
How is the atomic theory obtained?
"Social Rights And Duties" by Leslie Stephen
The establishment of the atomic theory now engaged most of his time and attention.
"Heroes of Science" by M. M. Pattison Muir
Before he had propounded the atomic theory he had already attained a considerable scientific reputation.
"Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 7, Slice 9" by Various
Atoms, atomic theory, i.
"Plato and the Other Companions of Sokrates, 3rd ed. Volume IV (of 4)" by George Grote
Still the new hypothesis is a modification and not a contradiction of the atomic theory.
"An Introduction to the History of Science" by Walter Libby
I have reason to believe that Dalton's atomic theory is founded upon error, and I know that mercury is not an element.
"The Gully of Bluemansdyke" by A. Conan Doyle
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In news:

The new evidence, challenging a dogma of science that has stood since Albert Einstein published his theory of relativity in 1905, appeared to confirm that sub-atomic particles called neutrinos could travel fractions of a second faster.
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In science:

The following tasks are implemented in QUIP: • Given a theory T , a set H of variables, and an atom p.
QUIP - A Tool for Computing Nonmonotonic Reasoning Tasks
Formulae Lφ are viewed as propositional variables, which are called modal atoms. A stable expansion of an autoepistemic theory T ⊆ LL is a set E ⊆ LL such that E = T h(T ∪ {Lφ | φ ∈ E ) ∪ {¬Lφ | φ /∈ E }), where T h(·) is the classical consequence operator with respect to the extended language LL .
QUIP - A Tool for Computing Nonmonotonic Reasoning Tasks
Within less than 5 years we had the quantum photoelectric effect, the special theory of relativity, and within 12 years the Bohr quantum theory of the atom.
Cosmic Dust in the 21st Century
But in spite of this, these devices are excluded from the world of atomic constituents that are described in the mathematical language of quantum theory.
Quantum theory and the role of mind in nature
This theory explained with greater precision than ever before the position of the spectral lines for the hydrogen atom.
The categorical theory of relations and quantizations
The “old” quantum theory suffered from the severe drawbacks that the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rules can only be applied to integrable systems, and, for atomic systems, the Heisenberg principle for matrix elements is silent about transition amplitudes between low-lying and highly excited states.
Semiclassical quantization with bifurcating orbits
An important step towards a deeper understanding of the intimate connection between classical orbits and the quantum spectra was achieved by the development of periodic orbit theory and, as a variant for the photo-excitation of atomic systems, closed orbit theory [2, 3].
Semiclassical quantization with bifurcating orbits
However, when closed-orbit theory is applied the hydrogen atom in an electric field exhibits properties typical of mixed regular-chaotic systems as, e.g., Rydberg atoms in a magnetic field or H´enon-Heiles type systems.
Semiclassical quantization with bifurcating orbits
Closed-orbit theory associates modulations observed in the quantum photo-absorption spectra of Rydberg atoms in external fields with the classical closed orbits.
Semiclassical quantization with bifurcating orbits
Finally, there is a microscopic theory for the entropy well below Tc (i.e. close to the calorimetric glass transition Tg ) by M´ezard and Parisi, which allows to calculate the Kauzmann temperature from the atomic pair potentials.
Energy landscape - a key concept for the dynamics of glasses and liquids
This is again a microscopic theory, because it allows to calculate the heat capacity and the Kauzmann temperature from the pair potentials between the atoms.
Energy landscape - a key concept for the dynamics of glasses and liquids
In recent times, however, a renewed interest in the RPA as a systematic theory of ground state correlations in atomic nuclei has appeared (see for instance Ref. 3).
Symmetry breaking and the random-phase approximation in small quantum dots
We consider only collisions taking place in elastic channels, where the number of atoms in each internal spin state is conserved, and begin with some simple considerations on elementary collision theory.
Large amplitude spin waves in ultra-cold gases
Also, it rules out any Pθ having an atom at the origin. A glaring situation is that this theory cannot approximate negative binomial sums by taking ϕ as gamma as one expects.
Infinite Divisibility and Max-Infinite Divisibility with Random Sample Size
Comparison of experiment and theory of hyperfine structure in hydrogen-like atoms.
Simple Atoms, Quantum Electrodynamics and Fundamental Constants
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