The semiclassical theory of laser describes the regime where, due to a large number of photons in the laser cavity, one may treat the electrical ﬁeld classically, but the two level atoms are treated quantum mechanically [20, 9].
Fluctuations relations for semiclassical single-mode laser
Less dramatic but still important examples involve large ﬂuctuations in the production rates of molecules on the surfaces of micron-sized dust grains in the interstellar medium, where the number of atoms, participating in the chemical reactions, can be relatively small [8, 9].
Large fluctuations in stochastic population dynamics: momentum space calculations
To demonstrate the power of this new approach, we consider random lasing in an ensemble of a large number N of identical atoms in free space, a problem of recent interest [9, 11, 12].
Euclidean matrix theory of random lasing in a cloud of cold atoms
Without a MOT, the ions exit the trap rapidly, while with cold atoms the ion loss is much slower and a stable number of ions (187 ± 9) is trapped without detectable loss beyond τih ≥ 2 minutes.
Sympathetic and swap cooling of trapped ions by cold atoms in a MOT
In a given host semiconductor, the energetic positions of CFR and DBH vary in a universal way with the atomic number of the TM [6, 9, 10, 11].
The Nature of the magnetism-promoting hole state in the prototype magnetic semiconductor GaAs: Mn